Brief synopses of relevant sections
of many published and unpublished papers concerning
shoreline species collection are given below. The
author has obtained not all those listed; some are
difficult to source, and others were only identified
at the end of the contract because they are referred
to in the recent study of Quigley and Frid (1998).
The section is intended to provide a more detailed
guide to the literature than can be provided by
a simple list of citations.
of relevant contents
L. 1994. Human disturbance and long term changes
on a rocky intertidal community. Ecological
Applications 4(4): 786-797.
a significant positive correlation between the
number of inverted rocks and human activity
on a shore. Density of all species was reduced
in the most heavily visited areas.
F.E. & McLusky, D.S. 1981. Physical recovery
of an intertidal area disturbed by baitworm
harvesting. Report to Natural Environment
Research Council. Ref GR 3/4061, p. 1-52.
of two studies on recovery of sediments after
bait digging in the Firth of Forth (also see
McLusky et al. 1983). Examined recovery
of areas where bait digging had been simulated,
comparing spoil and trench digging
with infilling. A series of holes were dug,
and microtopography, sediments in suspension
and surface sediments were monitored for 30
F.E. & Meyer, L.M. 1986. The interaction
of tidal currents on a disturbed intertidal
bottom with a resulting change in particulate
matter quantity, texture and food quality.
Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 22,
surface and suspended sediments after clam digging
in Maine, USA.
1995 (or 1996?) Angling in the Medina Estuary.
Topic report by the Isle of Wight Division of
the National Federation of Sea Anglers.
in response to a request for information by
the Centre for Coastal Zone Management, Portsmouth
University. Describes nature and location of
angling and bait digging activity and a survey
of the Medina shore. Comments on CZM options.
Prefers voluntary management options and notes
that promotion of the NFSA Code of Practice
needs most attention (only 1,200 of 5,000 anglers
on the Island are NFSA members).
J.B. and Arnold, W.B. 1985. Bait digging on
the northern shore of Poole Harbour: April -
November 1985: A preliminary study of six sites.
Unpublished report to NCC, Dorset.
account of broad impacts of activity in Poole
Harbour. The authors refer to bait beds being
completely dug out by itinerant groups of commercial
baitdiggers from outside the area.
J.B. and Arnold, W.B. 1987. Bait digging on
the northern shore of Poole Harbour: April -
October 1986. Follow-up studies of six sites.
Unpublished report to NCC, Dorset.
up of above.
S. and Ravencroft, N. 1998. Bait digging on
the Stour and Orwell Estuaries. Report to English
and impacts of bait diggers assessed over autumn
and winter of 97/98 through counts, questionnaires,
circulars and literature searches. Overall the
estuaries were not dug heavily, but obvious
signs of digging impacts were visible in the
most heavily used areas. Physical impacts of
digging and potential effects of invertebrate
populations were main management issues. Need
for management was assessed. Considered first
option should be for baitdiggers to set up their
own means of policing a voluntary code of conduct,
but if no progress is made control is recommended.
Options include permits and wardening at key
points. Total ban not considered acceptable
or necessary. A Working Group is to be set up
to consider the report.
N.R. 1970. Aspects of the ecology, behaviour
and life history of the polychaete Nereis
virens. Unpublished PhD Thesis. University
N.R. and Brafield, A.E. 1972. The life-cycle
of the polychaete Nereis virens. J.
Marine Biol. Ass. 52: 701-726.
D.V., Odin, N., Austin, A., Hayhow, S., Jones,
A., Strong, A., and Torres, E. 1984. The impact
of anglers on wildlife and site amenity. Department
of Applied Biology, UWIST, Cardiff.
impact of boulder turning for peeler crabs.
Up to 90% of all boulders in a shore transect
at Mumbles Head, Swansea, could be turned within
a two week period and some boulders may be turned
40-60 times during the summer. Most boulders
(60%) are not replaced in their original position.
Larger boulders which are upended and not overturned
completely are more likely to be left as they
J.J. 1995. The long-term effects of mechanical
harvesting of lugworms on the zoo-benthos community
of a tidal flat in the Wadden Sea. Netherlands
Journal of Sea Research. 33(2): 219-227.
on a long-term study of a 1 km2
area. A near doubling of annual lugworm mortality
rate resulted in a gradual and substantial decline
of local lugworm stock from more than twice
the overall mean at the start of the four year
digging period. Total zoobenthos biomass fell
even more because the population of the large
bivalve Mya arenaria that initially comprised
half of the total initial biomass was almost
completely removed. Heteromastus filiformis
was the only shortlived species to show a clear
population reduction during dredging. Recovery
of the benthos took several years, mainly because
of the slow re-establishment of a Mya population
with a normal size and age structure.
J.J. and Vlas, J. de 1979. Population parameters
of the lugworm Arenicola marina on the
tidal flats in the dutch Wadden Sea. Netherlands
Journal of Sea Research, 13, 331-354.
G.M., Holme, N.A., and Harvey, R. 1980. Survey
of the littoral zone of the coast of Great Britain.
Final report. Part I. The Sediment Shores. Part
II. The Rocky Shores. An assessment of their
conservation value. Marine Biological Association
and Scottish Marine Biological Association.
Report to NCC.
on strong evidence of a marked deterioration
in the richness of some shores since the late
19th century, particularly of marine
algae at classical sites in the Southwest, heavily
used by classes, and of some invertebrates collected
for food, bait, or ornaments.
R.W. 1977. The exploitation of Nereis virens
and Arenicola marina on the northeast
coast of England.
PhD Thesis. University of Newcastle-upon-Tyne.
See two publications below.
R.W. 1979 a. Exploitation of a natural population
of Arenicola marina (L.) from the north-east
coast of England. Journal of Applied Ecology,
diggers usually removed only about 70% of the
worms present. Studies of the recovery of lugworm
beds experimentally dug out at Whitley Bay indicated
that complete recolonisation occurred after
R.W. 1979 b. On the exploitation of a natural
population of Nereis virens Sars from
the north-east coast of England. Estuarine
and Coastal Marine Science, 8, 141-148.
exploited and unexploited populations of king
ragworms for one year on the north-east coast
of England. Population densities were not significantly
different, at about 15/m2 in summer
and 3/m2 in winter, indicating that
the dug population (most heavily exploited in
summer) was probably not threatened by bait
A.E. and Chapman, G. 1967. Gametogenesis and
breeding in a natural population of Nereis
virens. JMBA UK 47, 619-627.
G. 1997. An investigation of the ecological
effects of harvesting cockles (Cerastoderma
edule L.) by hand raking on the intertidal benthic
communities in the River Dee estuary, North
Wales. MSc thesis, School of Ocean Sciences,
University of Wales, Bangor.
the effects of disturbing the ecological balance
of intertidal communities through the hand raking
of cockles. Signs of recovery wer seen after
2.5 months in small treatment plots, but not
large ones. Observed changes in community structure
were probably due to release of sulphides, destruction
of diatom/bacterial layer, tubes and burrows
within and on the sediment surface, and interference
with normal predator/prey relationships. Time
to recovery was similar to that found for mechanical
harvesting impact, but considered to be less
destructive to bait digging, particularly to
the resident cockle population.
D.M. and Crumrine, L.L. 1994. Effects of human
trampling on marine rocky shore communities.
J.Exp.Mar.Biol.Ecol. 177: 79-97.
an experimental trampling regime. Upper shore
trampling resulted in a significant decline
in foliose algal species and the crushing and
removal of barnacles. Patches caused by trampling
in mussel beds continued to enlarge after trampling
ceased and had still not recovered two years
later. Overall, community structure shifted
towards domination by algal turf species with
B. and Wilson, H. Jr. 1997. The role of commercial
digging of mudflats as an agent for change of
infaunal intertidal populations. Journal of
Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. 218:
C.G. 1977. Het effect van pierenspitten op de
worm Heteromastus. Waddenbulletin, 12,
an 85% population decline of the polychaete
Heteromastus filiformis, a common sediment
shore invertebrate, after hand digging for lugworms.
P.S. 1989. Environmental impact of lugworm digging.
Report to the Nature Conservancy Council. Marine,
Environmental and Evolutionary Research Group,
University College of Swansea. CSD Report Number
of several studies in South Wales of the impact
of hand digging for worms on other populations
of sediment shore habitats and common invertebrates
and their recovery. Compared effects of trench
digging with use of bait pumps on lugworm population
recovery and effects on other spp. Not obtained
for this study.
P.S. and Nelson Smith, A. 1990. Genetic evidence
for two species of lugworm Arenicola
in South Wales. Marine Ecology Progress Series.
P.S. and Nelson Smith, A. 1993. A new species
of lugworm Arenicola defodiens sp. nov.
J.Mar.Biol.Ass.UK. 73(1) 213-224.
that the blacklug described by anglers
is a new species. Appears to prefer the bottom
of more exposed sandy shores.
P.S. Studies on lugworm Arenicola. MSc
C., Boucher, L., Desrosiers, G., & Retiére,
C. 1995. Population dynamics of the polychaete
Nephtys caeca in an intertidal estuarine
environment (Quebec, Canada). WHAT JOURNAL?
to the longevity of the species one individual
of 15 years old sampled.
Reference obtained from internet journal
still to be identified.
J.C. and Duran, L.R. 1985. Human exclusion from
the rocky intertidal zone of central Chile:
the effects on Concholepas concholepas
(Gastropoda). Oikos 45: 391-399.
of open and restricted access shores indicates
that a increase in numbers of the loco Concholepas
concholepas (a carnivorous gastropod) as
a result of a harvesting ban resulted in a decrease
in a competitively dominant intertidal mussel
which suffered from increased predation pressure
from the gastropod. The bare space produced
was subsequently colonised by other invertebrates
J. 1993. Wader disturbance: a theoretical overview.
In: Davidson, N. and Rothwell, P. Disturbance
to waterfowl on estuaries. Wader Study Group
Special Issue 68: 3-5.
work on foraging efficiency, competition and
dispersion, which may help to predict effects
of disturbance (e.g. by bait collection) on
G. and Newell, G.E. 1949. The distribution of
lugworms (Arenicola marina) over the
flats of Whitstable. Journal of the Marine
Biological Association UK, 28, 627-635.
reviewed. Inter alia, examined number
and size of casts over a one year period from
November 1946 to October 1947.
M.G. and Underwood, A.J. 1996. Experiments on
effects of sampling biota under intertidal and
shallow subtidal boulders. Journal of Experimental
Marine Biology and Ecology. 207: 213-237.
in Quigley and Frid 1998. Not reviewed.
M.G. and Underwood, A.J. 1997. Testing the effectiveness
of intertidal protected areas in New South Wales.
Final Report September 1997. Institute of Marine
Ecology, University of Sydney, NSW, Australia.
1993 NSW Fisheries gazetted a number of Intertidal
Protected Areas around Sydney. These areas are
theoretically closed to foraging and bait collection,
although anglers may still fish in them. The
project evaluated the effectiveness of IPAs
three years after protection started. It found
no changes in abundance or size-frequencies
of populations of particular species, nor changes
to the mid- and lowshore assemblages that could
be attributed to protection of these populations
in IPAs. Collection of animals collected in
the two IPAs examined and public knowledge about
IPAs did not improve during the study. Evidence
was that the IPAs were ineffectively protected.
Declaration of an IPA made no difference to
the numbers of people foraging and taking bait,
nor to the numbers who knew that this was no
longer allowed. There was no public education
apart from the few small signs in the IPAs.
Provision of inspection or surveillance of IPAs
by NSW Fisheries did not appear to be effective,
possibly due to lack of resources. IPAs were
not treated as protected areas by those who
use the rocky shores as places to kill animals
for bait and food.
R.B. 1977. Ecological impact of bait digging.
Report on Pilot Study to the Nature Conservancy
Council. CST Report Number 133.
desk study commissioned by the Department of
the Environment after NERC (1973) noted a potential
problem of stock depletion in some areas. It
gave a preliminary assessment of the extent
and nature of the ecological impact of bait
digging by questionnaire survey, examined biological
information, and made proposals for further
work. Discusses problems of enforcement of regulation
by various authorities.
R.B. 1980. Impact of bait digging on Cleethorpes
beach. Cleethorpes Borough Council unpublished
seen, but presumably refers to the review commissioned
by the Borough Council in connecting with the
existing bye law restricting bait digging to
only part of the beach for amenity reasons.)
B. and Irvine, M. 1995. A review of legislation
relating to the coastal and marine environment
in Scotland. Scottish Natural Heritage Review
the legal and administrative mechanisms employed
in the management of the coastal environment
in Scotland and draws upon and updates the review
of Legislative Responsibilities in the Marine
Environment (NCC 1989). Approaches to coastal
zone management in various other countries are
reviewed and compared with the current situation
P.J. 1983. Fishing bait collection in the Menai
Strait and its relevance to the potential establishment
of a marine nature reserve, with observations
on the biology of the main prey species, the
ragworm Nereis virens. MSc report, Centre
for Environmental Technology, Imperial College
of Science and Technology, University of London.
the slow recovery of bait-dug areas in the Menai
Straits. Describes unusual nature of king ragworm
population there, a large proportion of which
grows to an unusually large size before spawning
(also see Olive 1987).
E.P. and Clifford, D.A. 1982. Life history studies
of the sandworm, Nereis virens Sars,
in the Sheepscot Estuary, Maine, USA. Fisheries
Bulletin 80, 735-743.
species has been of commercial importance in
Maine for over 40 years. Study carried out in
an area closed to commercial bait digging. Equal
numbers of male and female spawners of <30
cm, but large numbers of females >30 cm were
found. 30% of largest worms showed no signs
of sexual development. Maturation of eggs could
take from 12 to 18-20 months. Spawning occurred
in April/May, four days after full moon during
spring tides and during water temperature of
6-8oC. A 16 cm worm could lay
0.05 million eggs, and a 54 cm worm 1.3
million eggs. Male spawners emerged three hours
after high tide.
E.P. 1973. Reproduction of the bloodworm (Glycera
dibrachiata) in the Sheepscot Estuary, Maine.
J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 30: 161-166.
of bloodworms is composed of five assumed year
classes. Most spawners are probably large 3-
and 4-year olds. Spawning takes place in June
(water temperature over 13oC). Males
emit streams of sperm while swimming at the
surface, and females swim rapidly there, suddenly
rupturing and releasing 1-10 million eggs.
E.P. and Clifford, D.A. 1986. The size frequency
and abundance of subtidal bloodworms (Glycera
dibrachiata, Ehlers) in Montsweag Bay, Woolwich-Wiscasset,
Maine. Estuaries. 9(3): 200-207.
were first dug commercially from the area in
1933. Construction of a causeway in 1950 caused
extensive areas of former beds to become subtidal.
A 1971 study investigated whether the population
continued to exist in the subtidal and might
provide a source for juvenile recruitment into
the heavily dug intertidal beds. The proposed
removal of the causeway would result in the
beds becoming available again for exploitation.
The study estimated that some 6 million ± 3
million worms were present in the submerged
area, worth $0.06-0.10 each in 1983.
E.P., Clifford, D.A., Hogan, M.J. and Sampson,
D.B. 1983. A commercial sampling program for
sandworms, Nereis virens Sars, and bloodworms,
Glycera dibranchiata Ehlers, harvested
along the Maine coast. NOAA Technical Report
NMFS SSRF-767. US Department of Commerce,
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration,
National Marine Fisheries Service.
possibly the best-documented and regulated fishery
for bait worms in the world. Describes habitats,
digging methods, packing media, and worm markets.
Diggers are licensed by the State of Maine Department
of Marine Resources. They take only one species
or the other and sell their catch to licensed
worm dealers, who pack and ship worms to wholesale
distributors. Distributors sell to retail outlets,
who divide shipments and sell worms by the dozen
to recreational fishermen. The fishery was one
of the top five commercial fisheries (landed
value) in 1976, being worth over US $ 2 million.
M. (ed). 1986. Angling and Wildlife. A report
of the work undertaken for the MSC during the
period May 1985 to May 1986. University of Wales,
Institute of Science and Technology.
chapter studied effects of bait digging and
overturning boulders for crab collection in
South Wales (Swansea Bay, Barry Harbour and
west Aberthaw). See published paper below.
M., Whittle, G.N., & Williams, R. 1987.
The impact of bait collection by anglers on
marine intertidal invertebrates. Biological
Conservation, 42, 83-93.
no significant increase in the density of lugworms
in depopulated areas during a six month experimental
period. Controls and experimental sites converged
in autumn and winter. (Initial densities at
these sites were very low, at 9 and 16 worms/m2
and population growth usually occurs in spring
and summer). Authors suggested that timing of
collection may be important in determining impact.
Recovery from summer and autumn digging is not
likely to occur until larval settlement and
juvenile and adult migration. Population likely
to be protected against exploitation by low
efficiency of removal and the large proportion
located below low water on most beaches.
Boulders sheltering crabs on initial surveys
(usually large, porous, irregularly shaped
and heavily encrusted) were more likely to
yield a crab on subsequent visits, whether
or not replaced. When boulders with no crabs
were replaced there was a significant increase
in the probability of finding a crab under
the same boulder on a subsequent visit. Replacing
any boulder after searching for a crab significantly
increased the probability of finding crabs
on a subsequent tide.
P.R. 1950. The reproduction and larval development
of Nereis diversicolor. J. Marine
Biol. Ass. 29: 321-360.
N. and Rothwell, P. 1993. Disturbance to waterfowl
on estuaries. Wader Study Group Special Issue
of impacts of presence of individuals on the
shore and other activities in estuaries on waterfowl
numbers. Considers case studies from the Dutch
Wadden Sea and Delta area, Denmark, Dee and
Exe Estuaries, and a UK shooting disturbance
project, and describes the effects of disturbance
to waterfowl from bait digging and wildfowling
in Lindisfarne NNR (see Townshend and OConnor
S. 1993. Bait-digging on Gillan Creek. Report
to Manaccan and St Anthony Parish Councils.
effects of increased commercial exploitation
of bait beds in the Helford River, Cornwall,
where habitat damage from bait digging is visible
for several weeks after this activity. Investigates
the issues surrounding the use of estuaries
for bait digging and how the experiences of
other areas may be used to safeguard the future
of Gillan Creek and the Helford River. Various
management options are suggested for discussion,
including education, controls on access, licensing,
and Local Nature Reserve designation.
Potier, A. 1998. Environmental Research for
Estuary Management: the Chichester Harbour Approach.
Proceedings of a Seminar held on 27 April 1988.
Chichester Harbour Conservancy.
Conservancy carried out an appraisal of the
likely pressures in the Harbour in 1992 and
invested in a wide-ranging programme of scientific
research and monitoring to investigate natural
processes and impacts and effects of human activity
(including bait digging see Farrell 1998).
The Seminar disseminated the research results.
A.H. 1992. Experimental studies of succession
and stability in rocky intertidal communities
subject to artisanal shellfish gathering. Netherlands
Journal of Sea Research 30: 209-217.
reviewed. Cited in Quigley and Frid.
Notes that community level parameters such
as species diversity or richness do not always
result in a predictable fashion to the effects
of human predation.
P. 1995. Impacts of bait dragging on the seabed
within Poole Harbour. Report to Southern Sea
District Fisheries Committee from the Marine
Environmental Research Group, University of
unusually large population of Nereis virens
occurs on muddy shores and shoals in the Harbour.
Unregulated bait dragging by about 15 vessels
occurs on very soft muddy ground that is unsuitable
for bait digging. A double-tined fork is dragged
through the sediment by a motor vessel, hooking
and dragging out large worms. There is concern
about the impact of this activity on seabed
ecology and privately leased mariculture beds
laid with mussels and other shellfish. The report
describes results of experimental bait dragging
on natural seabed and newly laid Mytilus
edulis plots. Bait dragging has a smaller
impact than bait digging, but is more widespread;
carried out across many remote and otherwise
undisturbed areas, as well as on the lower shore
of beaches also dug by hand. In addition to
the removal of large numbers of ragworms, other
large infauna are likely to be damaged by dragging,
which causes disturbance to a depth of 0.3-0.5 m.
If undertaken in these habitats, it would also
cause extensive damage to Zostera beds,
Sabellaria (tubeworm) beds and saltmarsh.
Mussel aggregations are displaced and disrupted,
with some overturned and buried. No evidence
of shell damage was recorded.
P. and Lewis, K. 1994. Sedimentary shores within
Poole Harbour: Bait harvesting and other human
impacts. Report to English Nature (South-West
Region) from the School of Biological Sciences,
surveys undertaken at nine locations on the
northern shore. Assessments covered habitats
and invertebrate fauna, with particular reference
to five bait species. Lugworm stocks are substantial,
as are kingrag worms. Sustainable commercial
yields of the latter appear to be maintained
from baitdragging. Catworms (white rag Nephtys
spp.) may be most vulnerable to overexploitation
and there is some evidence for midshore depletion.
Some large and fragile non-target infauna (e.g.
acorn worm Saccoglossus horsti) are considered
very vulnerable to baitdigging, as are seagrass
Zostera and peacock worm Sabella pavonina
beds when exposed during extreme spring tides.
Different shore types recover at different rates,
and heavily-dug stony beaches are most seriously
affected. Recommendations are made for management
and for further studies. Latter included study
of impact of bait dragging (see above), impacts
of kingrag Nereis virens and white rag
Nephtys digging, and impacts of bait
harvesting on bird and fish populations.
P.E.J. and Brown, F. 1998. Factors affecting
condition and mortality of farmed mussels in
Poole Harbour: 195-1997. Final report to Southern
Sea District Fisheries Committee from the Marine
Environmental Research Group, University of
collection not considered.
C.W., Grant, J. and Rowell, T.W. 1990. Indirect
effects of clam digging on the viability of
soft-shelled clams Mya arenaria. Netherlands
Journal of Sea Research. 27(1): 109-118.
laboratory experiments to see whether non-lethal
burial or exposure on the sediment surface could
alter the normal living depth of M. arenaria
in sand and mud. Clams buried more deeply than
normal in sand had not recovered to normal depths
after two weeks, and exposed clams on mud had
reburrowed to abnormally shallow depths in two
weeks. Concluded that the impacts of clam digging
are not only removal of market-sized clams and
shell breakage of remaining ones. Exposure of
pre-recruits may increase susceptibility of
unharvested clams to predation, desiccation
or freezing, with effects depending on different
J. and Clark, N.A. 1993. Disturbance studies
on Swansea Bay and the Burry Inlet in relation
to bird populations. BTO Research Report No.
carried out in February 1993. Lower numbers
of bait diggers were seen than expected (possibly
due to time of year). Because beaches between
Marina and Mumbles are heavily disturbed they
are not used by waders, and the Burry Inlet
is an important feeding site. Large numbers
of birds, particularly oystercatchers, feed
and roost there. Disturbance to feeding and
roosting birds (particularly oystercatchers
and curlew) by cocklers accessing Llanrhidian
Sands was recorded.
L.J. and Macpherson of Cluny J. 1993. Anderson
v. Alnwick District Council. 1 Weekly Law
Reports. 1993. Pp 1156-1171.
judgements over the Budle Bay bait digging prosecution
case history. Inter alia, confirmed that
the foreshore extends to the limit of the low
water line at any time; that there is a public
right to take worms from the shore ancillary
to the public right to fish in the sea, but
this right is not unrestricted (collection for
sale is not permitted) and may be regulated
in certain areas provided that alternative sources
of bait are available reasonably close by. See
case study for more details.
S.M., Arnott, S. and Wahju, R.I. 1994. Evidence
of change in the macrofauna of tidal flats subject
to anthropomorphic impacts in north-east England.
Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater
Ecosystems. (4) 333-334.
assessed differences that had occurred in macrofaunal
assemblages of tidal flats between 1931 and
1991. Dominant members of assemblages were same
for both surveys, and almost all taxa recorded
in 1931 were present. Two sorts of change were
evident: an Arenicola/Scoloplos/Cerastoderma/Macoma
community had been replaced by an oligochaete-dominated
community in part of Budle Bay, and numerical
densities of macrofauna were higher in 1991,
both probably the result of eutrophication.
Baitdigging had been intense at one site since
at least the early 1930s, but both target species
(Arenicola and Nereis virens)
still occurred there.
H., De Wilde, P.A.W.J. and Berghuis, E.M. 1979.
Distribution of juvenile and adult Arenicola
marina on a tidal mud flat and the importance
of nearshore areas for recruitment. Netherlands
Journal of Sea Research, 13 (3/4) 354-361.
P. 1998. Environmental impacts of baitdigging.
In de Potiers, A. 1998. Environmental Research
for Estuary Management: the Chichester Harbour
Approach. Proceedings of a Seminar held on 27
April 1988. Chichester Harbour Conservancy.
year research study carried out because of increased
commercial bait digging for king ragworm in
the Harbour. Results were needed to support
possible introduction of a bylaw. An experimental
site was established in a remote location and
sediment invertebrates sampled before and after
digging. Four species were significantly affected.
A large worm Amphitrite johnstoni and
its commensal Harmathoe imbricata were
completely absent following digging, and still
at very low numbers a year later. Cockle Cerastoderma
edule numbers fell slightly after digging.
Common periwinkle Littorina littorea
numbers increased they moved into the
area and settled on large flints exposed by
P. 1996. The environmental impact of bait digging:
effects on the infauna and epifauna of Chichester
Harbour. Report for the Institute of Marine
local concern about effects of bait digging
in the harbour, but no local research had been
carried out. This project studied local effects,
including areas dug, commercial outlets in the
region, and discussions with bait diggers. Nereis
virens is the main target species.
S., and Bouchez, B. 1998. Effects of recreational
disturbance on the foraging behaviour of waders
on a rocky beach. Bird Study. 45:157-171.
in Quigley and Frid 1998. Not reviewed.
E.C. 1992. Disturbance of benthic infauna by
sediment reworking activities of the lugworm
Arenicola marina. Netherlands Journal
of Sea Research 30, 81-89.
H. 1997. The impact and management of visitor
pressure on rocky shore communities. PhD Thesis.
University of Newcastle upon Tyne.
in Quigley and Frid 1998. Not reviewed.
H. and Frid, C.L.J. 1996. Impact and management
of visitor pressure on rocky intertidal algal
communities. Aquatic Conservation: Marine
and Freshwater Ecosystems. 6: 287-297.
trampling study at two sites in Northeast England
resulted in reduced abundance of fucoid and
turf algal species and increased amounts of
bare space in trampled plots. Suggested that
changes to algal composition may result from
as few as five people walking over the area
on each spring tide cycle.
A.J. 1984. The bait worm fishery in Moreton
Bay, Queensland. Queensland Department of Primary
Industries, Project Report Q 084009, pp. 18.
S.L. 1992. Survey of bait collection in Britain.
Joint Nature Conservation Committee Report No.
review of species, community and habitat effects
updated by this report. Also describes result
of a bait collection survey circulated in 1985
to local authorities (County Councils, District
Councils and some Harbour or Ports Authorities),
angling clubs, conservation organisations and
Gee, K. 1993. Impact of recreation on the
intertidal habitats of the Menai Strait proposed
marine nature reserve: an assessment of sustainability.
MSc University College London.
angling and bait digging were the recreational
activities found to have the greatest impact
on intertidal communities. The latter has a
widespread impact on the soft shores, particularly
ragworm beds, and causes not only a decline
in the ragworm population but also associated
infauna. It is ultimately considered to be unsustainable
in the long term because conditions do not allow
quick repopulation of depleted areas.
J., Huchel, T.D. and Devinny, J.S. 1983. Alteration
of Southern California Rocky Shore Ecosystems
by Public Recreational Use. Journal of Environmental
Management (16) 379-394.
how visitors can damage rocky shore ecosystems
by taking organisms and trampling them underfoot.
Usually only a few prominent animals are removed,
and populations (including rarities) may increase
because of reduced competition by former dominants.
Trampling reduces algal populations, with abundant
species most heavily affected.
J. 1995. Judgement 1995 No. 1114 in the High
Court of Justice in Northern Ireland Chancery
Division between Thomas Adair (plaintiff) and
the National Trust and the Crown Estate Commissioners
the right of the plaintiff and others to collect
winkles and whelks from the waters, bed and
foreshore of Strangford Lough, and the right
to collect worms related to an actual or intended
right to fish, but not for commercial resale.
More details in Strangford Lough case study.
N.R.S. 1995. Crab trapping in the South Devon
Estuaries (primarily around Plymouth). Honours
Project submitted in partial fulfilment of the
requirements for the degree of BSc. Plymouth
University Institute of Marine Studies.
the trapping of crabs using guttering and tiles
in the south Devon estuaries, primarily around
Plymouth. Numbers have grown from none to 8,750
traps at Plymouth, and increased 10-fold in
the Exe and Teign estuaries. Commercial collectors
supply local angling shops and outlets elsewhere.
Natural crab populations fluctuate yearly, seasonally
and daily, and larval planktonic stages allow
recolonisation of depleted areas. Extent of
depletion is therefore hard to prove. Increased
fishing effort also provides sanctuaries for
marine animals and plants at low tide, and sources
of food for fish and birds.
J.D. and Verboven, N. 1993. Disturbance and
feeding shorebirds on the Exe Estuary. Wader
Study Group Bulletin. 68: 59-66.
J. 1981. Sediment transport and disturbance
on an intertidal sandflat: infaunal distribution
and recolonization. Marine Ecology - Progress
Series, 6, 249-255.
S.J. and Harding, M.J.C. 1998. The effects of
mechanical harvesting of cockles on non-target
benthic infauna. Scottish Natural Heritage
Research, Survey and Monitoring Report No.
result of three year study in Auchencairn Bay,
Solway Firth. Preliminary survey was followed
by two manipulative field experiments on suction
dredging and tractor dredging. Suction dredging
effects were statistically significant, but
recovery had occurred by 56 days after dredging.
The effects of tractor dredging were not statistically
significant, but this was likely because the
experiment was carried out at a different time
of year. Concluded not possible to make a distinction
between the effects of the two methods, recovery
from both is rapid, and overall effects on populations
M.S.C. and Tindal, E.C. 1991. The impacts of
bait digging on the polychaete fauna of the
Swale Estuary, Kent, UK. Polychaete Research
impact of bait digging was investigated by measuring
digging activity and species affected. It was
estimated that 6.5% of Arenicola marina
(main target species) were removed annually
(4,300 worms per day or over 1.5 million per
year probably an underestimate). Recovery
was measured in experimental dug plots. After
digging there was an immediate loss of invertebrates,
both the target bait species and other species
disturbed in the digging process. Dug areas
were recolonised over a period of some months.
After six months (January to July) A. marina
in the experimental dug plots had only recovered
to 21% of control site numbers. Other species,
e.g. Scoloplos armiger, returned to 78%
of original levels within the period. This level
of exploitation gives rise to some concern as
to the sustainability of the activity.
Bait diggers need a permit to dig in the
Swale Local Nature Reserve. Only five of 841
bait diggers approached by wardens during
a six week period in 1984 had valid licenses.
The majority claimed ignorance of the designated
conservation area and the need for a license.
T. van den. 1987. Effects of mechanical and
manual harvesting of lugworms Arenicola marina
L. on the benthic fauna of tidal flats in
the Dutch Wadden Sea. Biological Conservation,
effects of both hand and mechanical digging
on habitats, lugworm populations and other sediment
infauna. Monitoring of the fauna of dredged
sites was carried out for six months. (The rate
of physical recovery of the sediment surface
is not recorded.)
Hand digging caused a significant reduction
in many of the common species, including Scoloplos
armiger, Nereis diversicolor, Heteromastus
and, of course, Arenicola (50%
removal). A total of 1.9 g of other benthic
animals were removed for every 1 g of
Arenicola. Mechanical digging has a
much more serious effect, with complete removal
of Arenicola and up to an 80 or 90%
loss of the Baltic tellin Macoma baltica,
Scoloplos and Heteromastus. Using
this method, for every gram of lugworm taken,
9 to 13.4g of other invertebrates are removed
from the area. Dredges strain sediment through
a sieve with water jets, leaving gullies 40cm
deep and one metre wide, bordered on each
side by a 1.5 metre wide ridge a few cm high.
They usually only operate within a very large
area of intertidal sand flat, and are likely
to leave considerable areas untouched.
L. van. 1989. Collection of mussel worms Pseudonereis
variegata for bait a legislative
anachronism. South African Journal of Marine
Science, 8, 363-366.
P.A.R. 1987. The influence of coastal utilisation
by man on the presumed global extinction of
the Canarian black oystercatcher Haematopus
meadewaldoi Bannerman. Biol. Cons.
that one of the factors that could have contributed
to the extinction of this species may have been
intensive exploitation of intertidal organisms.
The limpet Patella canedei is still locally
extinct as a result of this activity.
P.A.R. and Bosman, A.L. 1986. Man as an intertidal
predator in Transkei: disturbance, community
convergence, and management of a natural food
resource. Oikos 46, 3-14.
that human collecting activities on sessile
filter feeders, grazing and predatory gastropods
provided a form of non-selective intermediate
disturbance that resulted in an increase in
species diversity in harvested areas.
R. 1985. The effect of bait digging on the bioavailability
of heavy metals from surficial intertidal marine
sediments. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 16,
increased levels of heavy metals found in surface
sediments and invertebrates following intensive
bait digging in Budle Bay. Estimated that the
weight of sediment turned over by 50 diggers
was 62.5 tonnes. The exposure and subsequent
oxidisation of deep sediments by digging enables
heavy metals (cadmium and lead) which are bound
to sediment particles in reduced (anoxic) conditions
to become bioavailable. Cadmium is also concentrated
in the anoxic layers by the activity of lugworms;
their removal therefore exacerbates this problem.
D. 1992. Foreshore fishing for shellfish and
cockle fishing and bait worm collection by hand
and dredge. Summarises legal aspects of foreshore
fisheries (ownership of foreshore, access etc.),
life histories of target species, and impacts
of bait digging by hand and by mechanical lugworm
D. 1995a Coastal zone management and baitdigging:
A review of potential conflicts with nature
conservation interests, legal issues and some
available regulatory mechanisms. In: Management
techniques in the coastal zone. Proceedings
of the Conference organised by the University
of Portsmouth, October 24-25, 1994.
useful review of the legal status, management
and potential for regulation of bait digging.
D. 1995b. A review of coastal zone management
powers. A response to the Department of the
Environments review of byelaw making powers
in the coastal zone. Royal Society for the Protection
of Birds, August 1995.
difficulty of achieving effective control of
bait collection is one of the issues discussed
in this document. Inter alia, it examines
restrictions in byelaw purposes, constraints
on the operation of voluntary agreements and
causes of failure, legislative constraints,
conflicts in duties, functions and powers, and
the problem of public rights and third party
activities. Several case studies are described.
E. and Naylor, E. 1993. Intertidal migration
by the shore crab Carcinus maenus. Marine
Ecology Progress Series. 101: 131-138.
in Quigley and Frid 1998. Not reviewed.
M.J. & James, R. 1979. The influence of
bait digging on cockle, Cerastoderma edule,
populations in north Norfolk. Journal
of Applied Ecology, 16, 671-679.
that intensification of commercial digging for
bait worms on the North Norfolk coast in the
1950s and '60s resulted in a decline in cockle
Cerastoderma edule populations. Undisturbed
cockle beds were not affected. Cockles were
thought to be killed by burial by bait digging,
because they cannot regain their normal position
at the surface of the sediment if deeply buried
in overturned spoil. Authors estimated that
a bait digger turns over 6-12m-2
of sand in a tide, or 25-50 acres per year on
the north Norfolk sands.
R. Perrow, M.R. and Thatcher, K. 1993. The effects
of bait digging on the benthic fauna of intertidal
flats. No publication information.
of bait digging on marine benthic invertebrates
determined by field and laboratory experiments.
Infauna sampled in experimentally dug plots
and adjacent controls at two sites in eastern
England from January to March 1990. Arenicola
marina, Nephtys caeca, Lanice conchilega, Cerastoderma
edule and Nematode densities were significantly
reduced by digging; Macoma balthica, Ostracoda,
Harpacticoida and Foraminifera densities
were not. Laboratory experiments demonstrated
the mobility and resistance of Macoma
to burial, and vulnerability of Cerastoderma.
G. 1984. Bait collection in a proposed marine
nature reserve. MSc Report, Ecology and Conservation
Unit, University College London.
study by Coates 1983. Describes methods of bait
collection of peeler crab, lugworm and king
ragworm, and distribution and numbers of bait
collectors in the Menai Strait. Disturbance
found to be widespread, but particularly intensive
within the ragworm beds (where 30-50% of most
popular areas were disturbed each year) and
in virtually all suitable areas for moulting
crab (where 70-90% of rocks showed signs of
being displaced). Studied the recovery of bait
dug areas in very sheltered conditions, where
bait digging results in the movement of underlying
boulder clay to the surface. Some experimental
plots were still visible one year after having
been dug, and all holes dug during the season
were still present at the end of the season.
J. 1991. Impact of bait digging on the wintering
birds of Spurn Bight. English Nature Report.
trends in number of wintering birds in the study
area, where bait digging is common, with national
trends. Desk Study.
A. 1992. An assessment of the implications of
bait digging for the nature conservation interests
of the Welsh shore of the Severn Estuary/Bristol
Estuary. CCW South Wales Report CCW/SW/12.
extent of bait digging on the Welsh shore of
the Severn Estuary through direct observations
(at Burry Inlet, Sully Island and Cardiff foreshore),
contacts with bait diggers, retail fishing outlets,
and local organisations. Species collected included
lugworm, king ragworm, razor shells and peeler
crab. Sales of lugworm and ragworm in local
shops varied from 1 to 100 lbs per week. All
sources indicated that lugworm was in decline
on the Welsh coast. Decline in birds using Swansea
Bay attributed by observers to bait digging.
M.J. and Pickett, G. 1996. The effects of fishing
on the marine environment. Intertidal fisheries
paper for EN/MAFF workshop.
main effects as: 1) physical disturbance of
the sediment, 2) direct removal or death of
non-target organisms, 3) transport of contaminants
and heavy metals at the sediment surface, 4)
sediment resuspension, and 5) localised reduction
in food for birds and other predators. Considered
collection of lugworm, king ragworm and premoult
green crabs. Reviews much of the same literature
M.J., Quinn, G.P., and King, A. 1993. Correlations
between human collecting and intertidal mollusc
populations on rocky shores. Conservation
Biology 7(2): 378-390.
in Quigley and Frid 1998. Not reviewed.
M.J., Underwood, A.J., and Kennelly, S.J. 1991.
Humans as predators on rocky reefs in New South
Wales, Australia. Marine Ecology Progress
Series. 72: 1-14.
in Quigley and Frid 1998. Not reviewed.
A. 1994. Report to the Secretary of State for
the Environment on a Public Inquiry held at
the Guildhall, Berwick-upon-Tweed, March 1994.
a useful background to the history of bait digging
controls at Budle Bay, Lindisfarne National
Nature Reserve (NNR), the approval of the Section
29 Order and amendment of the NNR byelaws prohibiting
bait digging in the Bay. See case study for
J.E. 1993. A study into the exploitation of
Arenicola marina L. on the River Camel
(North Cornwall). No publication details.
English Nature Report? Not obtained for review.
M., Gladwin, D.J., Wege, D.C. and Nelson-Smith,
A. 1989. Impact of boulder-turning on sheltered
sea shores. Report to the Nature Conservancy
Council. School of Biological Sciences, University
College of Swansea. NCC CSD Report 919.
suggest that a minimum of 3,000 rocks were overturned
daily during periods of reasonably low tides
at both Mumbles and Oxwich. An unknown proportion
involve the repeated overturning of the same
rocks. No 'serious' collector was seen to replace
rocks in their original position. The chief
result of this damage to rocky shores is the
loss of habitat stability, which in turn seriously
affects the range of species found on and beneath
boulders. The removal of large algae will also
cause the destruction of their understory habitats,
which are important for the shelter provided
to small algae and invertebrates.
J.M. 1993. A study of Arenicola marina
and the environmental impact from their exploitation
as a sea angling bait. BA (Hons) study. Coleg
life-cycle of lugworm and environmental impacts
of harvesting on their populations, habitat
and non-target species by literature review
and studies in Red Wharf Bay and Benllech Bay,
Anglesey. Recovery of the sediment after digging
on the high-energy beach of Benllech Bay was
less than 7 days, but longer than this at Red
P. and Prokop, F. 1993. Intertidal invertebrates
Regulations. NSW Fisheries Fishnote
DF/28, July 1993.
reduced bag limits for intertidal species collection,
permitted harvesting methods, and declaration
of protected areas where no harvesting may take
place. Fines of up to $10,000 apply for breaching
NSW Fisheries regulations.
D.W. and Fowler, S.L. 1997 a. Review of the
exploitation of the mussel Mytilus edulis
in Scotland. Scottish Natural Heritage
Review. No. 68.
of mussels for food and bait has been undertaken
in Scotland since prehistoric times. Catches
have been recorded since 1886, and have declined
significantly over the past 100 years. Mussels
were collected by hand prior to 1986, and by
mechanical dredging since 1986. In 1994 mussels
were the seventh most important shellfish in
terms of weight landed and 12th in
terms of value. Most natural mussel beds yield
mussels only suitable for processing. A questionnaire
circulated to Scottish Natural Heritage and
Scottish Fisheries Protection Agency Staff reported
only a small amount of collection of mussels
for personal use (table or fishing bait), and
commercial collection. There is no right of
public fishery for mussels in Scotland, but
it is probably a tolerance. The environmental
role of mussels in the natural environment is
considered. They provide an important habitat
for other invertebrates, and a food source for
birds and feeding fish. Compared with commercial
mussel collection, the impacts of hand collection
are considered to be small, although unstudied
in the UK.
D.W. and Fowler, S.L. 1997 b. Review of Winkle
Littorina littorea harvesting in Scotland.
Scottish Natural Heritage Review. No.
of winkles for food has been undertaken in Scotland
since prehistoric times. In 1994 winkles were
the sixth most important shellfish in terms
of weight landed and 7th in terms
of value according to official landings statistics.
This is almost certainly a considerable under-estimate
exports are probably twice this. Habitat
damage (chiefly by stone turning and disturbance
to algae) and habitat and community change (caused
by removal of an important herbivore) is briefly
reviewed, as are impacts on winkle populations
and shore birds and mammals. Collection will
cause depletion of winkle populations, but has
little permanent effect because it targets the
largest individuals that are frequently no longer
contributing to recruitment due to infestation
by parasitic flukes.
D.S., Anderson, F.E. & Wolfe-Murphy, S.
1983. Distribution and population recovery of
Arenicola marina and other benthic fauna
after bait digging. Marine Ecology - Progress
Series, 11, 173-179.
process of digging for bait causes the death
of many other marine invertebrates, by physical
damage, burial and smothering or exposure to
desiccation and predation. Recovery of dug areas
takes place most quickly (within three weeks)
where holes and trenches are back filled (McLusky
et al. 1983), and in the most wave-exposed
areas. Rapid recolonisation by Arenicola
is thought to occur by above surface migration
in response to enhanced organic matter levels
in the soft microhabitat of the trenches. Bait
digging did not pose a significant threat to
spawning stock of lugworms.
A. 1995. The effect of bait digging on the intertidal
macrofauna of the Stour and Orwell estuaries.
Suffolk Wildlife Trust.
densities, biomass and distribution of species
in areas with and without digging.
Environment Research Council. 1973. Marine
wildlife conservation. NERC publications Series
B, No. 5. NERC.
bait digging was a potential problem in some
Conservancy Council & Natural Environment
Research Council. 1979. Nature conservation
in the marine environment. Report of the
NCC/NERC Joint Working Party on Marine Wildlife
'strong evidence of damage to sandy and muddy
beaches by bait-digging.'
Reported that the National Anglers Council
estimated in the 1970s that about 75% of anglers
prefer to dig their own bait.
South Wales Agriculture and Fisheries. 1991.
Managing harvesting activities in intertidal
habitats. A discussion paper. NSW Agriculture
and Fisheries, Australia.
the problem caused by increasing numbers of
human foragers removing all forms of life
from intertidal areas. Bag limits introduced
for some species in 1988 have been ineffective
in controlling harvesting activities. Some harvesting
methods cause significant habitat damage. Describes
proposed management plan to totally protect
selected sites from harvesting activities, which
should then serve as a reservoir for repopulation
elsewhere. Also tightly controls harvesting
elsewhere by specifying permitted methods and
imposing bag limits on many intertidal invertebrates.
Proposes to develop an educational programme,
improve effectiveness of enforcement, and monitor
G.E. 1948. A contribution to our knowledge of
the life history of Arenicola marina
L. J.Mar.Biol.Ass.UK. 27:554-580.
G.E. 1949. The later larval life of Arenicola
marina L. J.Mar.Biol.Ass.UK. 28:
D. 1979. Observations on the population structure
and recruitment of the lugworm Arenicola
marina, with particular reference to its
exploitation as a bait species. Unpublished.
Department of Zoology, University of Newcastle-upon-Tyne.
K., Bannister, R.C.A., and Walker, P.W. 1998.
Changes in the number of oystercatchers Haematopus
ostralegus wintering in the Burry Inlet
in relation to the biomass of cockles Cerastoderma
edule and its commercial exploitation. Journal
of Applied Ecology. 35: 75-85.
in Quigley and Frid 1998. Not reviewed.
P. 1984. Survey of the littoral infauna at Newton-on-Sea.
Report to the Nature Conservancy Council. CST
Report no. 533.
unique scientific importance of the beach, which
has a diverse fauna including several species
that only occur at this locality in Northumberland
and Durham. The same area has a population of
large lugworms. Exploitation of these stocks
would result in predation and accidental damage
to the sediment structure and other associated
species, including Echinocardium cordatum,
and the unique interstitial fauna of the beach.
Recommends that present policy restricting bait
digging should continue.
P.J.W. 1985a. A Study of lugworm populations
in the Lindisfarne National Nature Reserve.
Final report to the Nature Conservancy Council.
CST Report 569.
summarised in Olive 1993. Describes two-year
period when no bait digging took place in Budle
Bay, followed by 6-month period of restricted
bait digging. Study demonstrated that the site
could not withstand the level of exploitation
experienced in winter 1984/85.
P.J.W. 1985b. Slow grow white ragworm. The
Sea Angling Handbook. Winter 85/86. 28-31.
article. Describes biology, age, and breeding
strategy of Nephtys. These species are
long-lived, slow-growing and offspring have
a low survival rate to adulthood. Additionally,
they do not breed every year. From 1975-1985
one of the common British species only bred
successfully in two years. Also describes the
much larger more ferocious US bloodworms Glycera,
which inject their prey with poison.
P.J.W. 1985c. Ragtime. Article in: The Sea
Angling Handbook. Autumn 1985. 21-23.
article. Describes biology and breeding cycle
of Nereis species. Explains that bait
beds are inadequate to meet demand, as a result
of over-digging, pollution and land claim in
P.J.W. 1986. Lugworm; abuse or management?.
Article in: The Sea Angling Handbook.
Autumn 1986. 61-63.
suggestions for rotational closure of bait beds
to increase yields.
P.J.W. 1987. Menai Strait ragworm studies. A
report to the Nature Conservancy Council. CSD
Report No. 802.
unusual nature of king ragworm population in
the Menai Strait. Despite rapid initial growth
of young worms in the Strait, comparable to
that achieved in the laboratory, there is an
unusually long period of growth in most individuals
before spawning occurs. Animals of two to three
feet in length that show no signs of maturation
have been recorded. Small individuals are very
scarce. The maximum proportion of the population
found to be spawning in one year was about 20%,
much lower than normal. The study site was subject
to intensive digging, resulting in serious and
at least semi-permanent environmental damage
from boulder displacement and exposure of underlying
boulder clay. This would result in serious damage
to the associated and important faunal communities
present at these sites.
P.J.W. 199? Polychaeta as a world resource:
patterns of exploitation, management and the
potential for aquaculture based production.
Memoires Museum dHistoire Naturel,
P.J.W. 1993. Management of the exploitation
of the lugworm Arenicola marina and the
ragworm Nereis virens (Polychaeta) in
conservation areas. Aquatic Conservation
two case studies: Arenicola marina exploitation
in the Lindisfarne National Nature Reserve,
and Nereis virens in the Menai Strait.
Neither are examples of a sustainable economic
pattern, and could not support continuous production
or export to significant markets. Management
of the exploitation of bait populations in conservation
areas is discussed in relation to world patterns
of utilisation and supply.
P.J.W. and Cadman, P.S. 1990. Mass mortalities
of the lugworm on the South Wales Coast: a consequence
of algal bloom? Marine Pollution Bulletin
algal bloom on the South Wales coast first affected
the Burry Inlet in September 1990, and four
weeks later Swansea Bay. This is thought to
have led to a decline in the lugworm population.
P.J.W. and Cowin, P.D.B. 1994. The management
of natural stocks and the commercial culture
of polychaeta as solutions to the problems of
bait digging and worm supply for sea angling
in the UK. Polychaete Research 16: 23-27.
A. de (date?) Bait digging in Chichester Harbour.
Internal report to Chichester Harbour Conservancy.
A. and Keough, M.J. 1991. Effects of trampling
on plant and animal populations on rocky shores.
Oikos 61: 355-368.
in Quigley and Frid 1998. Not reviewed.
M.P. and Frid, C.L.J. 1998. Draft management
report: The ecological impacts of the collection
of animals from rocky intertidal reefs (pp.
42). A report to English Nature from the Dove
Marine Laboratory, Cullercoats, North Shields,
Tyne and Wear, NE30 4PZ. Supported by the European
nature and scale of collecting activities upon
rocky intertidal reefs within the Berwickshire
and North Northumberland cSAC. Sets out options
for management and recommendations to address
issues identified. Target organisms were Carcinus
maenus, Cancer pagurus and Littorina
littorea. Main recommendations were for
monitoring the activity and establishing a zonation
scheme with no-take zones in representative
pristine sites throughout the SAC to act as
a source of recruits.
H.L. and Eleftheriou A. 1989. North Sea benthos:
A review of field investigations into the biological
effects of mans activities. J.Cons.int.Expl.Mer.
several of the papers listed here in assessing
effects of anthropogenic activity on the benthos.
Notes increase in bio-availability of lead and
cadmium (Howell 1985), and species and community
effects reported by several authors.
E.M. and Williams, I.C. 1971. Relationships
of some species of Digenea with the marine prosobranch
Littorina littorea (L.). II. The effect
of larval Digenea on the reproductive biology
of L.littorea. J. Helminthology. 45,
are rarely affected by parasitic trematodes
prior to first spawning. As they grew older,
rate of infection grew exponentially. Trematode
infections so reduce egg production by affected
females that in some populations the entire
egg production comes from first-time spawners.
P., Giangrande, A., & Canicatti, C. 1990.
Comparison of hemolytic activity in eight species
of polychaetes. Marine Biology. 1990.
vol. 107, no. 2, pp. 199-203.
in this review because they mention a purchase
from a retail shop in Italy of a Nereis sp.
imported from the Yellow Sea, Japan.
F.E. 1989. Human disturbance of wading birds
on the Ythan Estuary. Unpub. BSc thesis, Department
of Zoology, University of Aberdeen.
limited disturbance by bait diggers to have
relatively little effect on feeding waders.
S.E., Coates, P.J., and Giesbrecht, G.E. 1995.
Cockles and Bait Digging in the Burry Inlet.
Burry Inlet and Loughor Estuary Symposium: State
of the estuary report, Part 2; Supplementary
Proceedings to the Burry Inlet Symposium 1995.
experimental investigation into the effects
of bait digging on cockles. Substratum turned
over and broken up to a depth of about 30 cm.
Compared effects of backfilling and digging
trenches with spoil heaps. Both methods caused
over 90% cockle mortality (probably through
burial) within 6 days. Differences between controls
and dug plots still detectable after 3 months.
Older cockles more susceptible to effects of
digging. Backfilling less damaging because a
smaller surface area affected than by using
trench and spoil heap method.
M.H.S. 1982. The reproductive biology, population
genetics and population dynamics of the lugworm
Arenicola marina in relation to bait
digging on the Northumberland coast. PhD Thesis.
University of Newcastle upon Tyne.
lugworms breed between October and March, usually
in November and December, although up to 20%
of the population may spawn in July to September.
Each animal spawns on a single day, with the
entire population of a beach completing spawning
within just a few days. Populations on different
beaches breed at different times.
A.K., and Keough, M.J. 1998. An investigation
of the indirect effects of intertidal shellfish
collection. Journal of Experimental Marine
Biology and Ecology. 223:19-38.
in Quigley and Frid 1998. Not reviewed.
K.M. & Coull, B.C. 1980. The response of
meiofauna to sediment disturbance. Journal
of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology,
W.R. (ed.) 1994. Rocky shores exploitation
in Chile and South Africa. Ecological Studies
Vol. 103. 177pp. Springer-Verlag.
J. 1992. Preliminary research into bait digging
in Pagham Harbour. No publication details.
to ascertain bait digging pressures, location
and distribution of the main beds and to establish
suitable long-term survey techniques prior to
a five year investigation into ecological implications
C.J. and Visser, G.J.M 1993. Effects of disturbance
on shorebirds: a summary of existing knowledge
from the Dutch Wadden Sea and Delta Area. Wader
Study Group Bulletin. 68: 6-19.
in Quigley and Frid 1998. Not reviewed.
and Orwell estuaries group. (date?) Stour and
Orwell estuaries management plan.
concerns about bait digging. Policy LR4 states:
Promote understanding and the necessary control
to provide a sustainable level of bait digging.
Coasts and Heaths Project. (date?) Stour and
Orwell estuaries management plan issues.
issues resulting from bait digging.
Estuaries Bait Collection Working Group. 1998.
Working Group was set up when bait collection
(particularly the level and impact of crab trapping
and worm digging and the abuse of access and
property rights) was identified as an issue
of concern by the Tamar Estuaries Management
Plan Consultative Document. The Group is comprised
of recreational and commercial collectors and
recreational marine fishery bodies. It notes
that there are some 20,000 crab traps in the
Tamar Estuaries, of which some 8,000 are commercially
used. Commercial traps yield some 90,000 crabs,
recreational anglers collect some 20,000. Approximately
70% of the commercial yield is sold to other
parts of the UK. Most worm digging is carried
out by recreational anglers. The Group recommends
a voluntary management approach involving all
key players, in harmony with the Tamar Estuaries
Management Plan. Improved public awareness,
production of a local bait collectors
code and an educational programme, surveys,
monitoring and zoning of activity are all recommended.
D.J. and OConnor, D.A. 1993. Some effects
of disturbance to waterfowl from bait digging
and wildfowling at Lindisfarne National Nature
Reserve, north-east England. In: Davidson, N.
and Rothwell, P. Disturbance to waterfowl on
estuaries. Wader Study Group Bulletin, 68:47-52.
digging activity greatly reduced the extent
of use of the area by several waterfowl species,
apparently through the direct effects of disturbance.
Large numbers of people were spread across the
tidal flats disturbing waterfowl attempting
to use the wildlife refuge. Average peak winter
numbers of wigeon and two of the main wader
species (bar-tailed godwit and redshank) before
and after restrictions on bait digging showed
that in years when bait digging took place on
all or parts of the Bay the numbers were substantially
lower than in years when there was no bait digging.
The difference was most marked for wigeon. These
differences were not considered to be due to
between-year differences in the local populations,
as it was a larger proportion of the Lindisfarne
population which used the Bay, implying that
it may be a preferred area for these species
and that birds which would otherwise have fed
there were prevented from doing so by the presence
of bait diggers. Substantial increases in the
populations of four other species of wildfowl
using Budle Bay were also recorded in the year
following prohibition of bait digging (inc.
119% for shelduck, 700% for wigeon).
A.J. 1993. Exploitation of species on the rocky
coast of New South Wales (Australia) and options
for its management. Ocean and Coastal Management
the widespread, continuous and destructive patterns
of human harvesting of intertidal and subtidal
invertebrates and algae, the nature and types
of catches, and the intensity of the activity
on the rocky coast of New South Wales. Direct
effects include the loss of individuals removed
from breeding populations. Indirect effects
include loss of prey items for other species,
and loss of habitat. Management options, including
general or selective bag limits, bans on harvesting
for food and bait on the whole coast or in selected
areas, are reviewed. Complete and enforced closure
of certain areas is considered to be the only
realistic option. Criteria for selection and
needs for public education and monitoring to
determine effectiveness are briefly discussed.
management strategy discussion papers. September
on public access, recreation and bait digging.
D.C. 1987. The effect of boulder turning by
bait collectors on intertidal boulder fauna.
University College of Wales, Swansea. Report
to the Nature Conservancy Council. CSD Report.
published in Liddiard et al. 1989.