Seabird species

Classified SPAs with significant inter-tidal element* : Alde-Ore Estuary, Alt Estuary, Benacre to Easton Bavents, Benfleet and Southend Marshes, Blackwater Estuary, Breydon Water, Burry Inlet, Castlemartin Coast, Chesil Beach and The Fleet, Chichester and Langstone Harbours, Colne Estuary, Coquet Island, Deben Estuary, River Crouch Marshes, Dengie, Duddon Estuary, Exe Estuary, Farne Islands, Flamborough Head and Bempton Cliffs, Foulness, Gibraltar Point, Glannau Aberdaron and Ynys Enili, Glannau Ynys Gybi, Grassholm, Great Yarmouth North Denes, Hamford Water, Humber Flats Marshes and Coast, Lindisfarne, Medway Estuary and Marshes, Mersey Estuary, Minsmere-Walberswick, Morecambe Bay, North Norfolk Coast, Old Hall Marshes, Pagham Harbour, Portsmouth Harbour, Ramsey and St Davids Peninsula Coast, Ribble and Alt Estuaries, Rockcliffe Marches, Severn Estuary, Skokholm and Skomer, Stour and Orwell Estuaries, Tamar Estuaries Complex, Teesmouth and Cleveland Coast, Thanet Coast and Sandwich Bay, The Dee Estuary, The Swale, The Wash, Traeth Lafan, Upper Solway Flats and Marshes, Ynys Feurig, Cemlyn Bay and the Skerries, Monach Isles, North Uist Machair & Islands, Dornoch Firth and Loch Fleet, Moray & Nairn Coast (Moray Basin Firths & Bays), Loch of Strathbeg, Ythan Estuary Sands of Forvie & Meikle Lochs, East Sanday Coast, Gruinart Flats, Bridgend Flats (Islay), Montrose Basin, Cromarty Firth, Inner Moray Firth, Loch of Inch and Torrs Warren, South Uist Machair & Lochs.

Potential SPAs with significant inter-tidal element* : Dungeness to Pett Levels, Northumberland Coast, Poole Harbour, Southampton Water and Solent Marshes, Thames Estuary and Marshes, Inner Clyde Estuary, Firth of Tay and Eden Estuary, Firth of Forth.

* As at September 1999

The Birds Directive is concerned with the conservation of all species of naturally occurring birds in the wild state in the territory of Member States. Measures are required to preserve, maintain or re-establish a sufficient diversity and area of habitats for these species through the creation of protected areas, the upkeep and management of habitats inside and outside these areas, and the re-establishment of destroyed biotopes and creation of biotopes. The site protection measures require the classification of Special Protection Areas (SPAs) for species listed in Annex I of the Directive. Eleven of these are seabirds which occur around the UK (see Table in Annex 1) although some, like the Mediterranean gull, and Cory's shearwater are only observed on an occasional basis. The Directive also specifies that special conservation measures should be taken with regard to the habitats of regularly migrating species not listed in Annex I (see Table in Annex 2 to this report). The effect of various fishing practices on seabirds and migrating birds are discussed below.

Static and drift net fisheries