This section examines the impacts that may result
from the maintenance of harbour structures and vessels
- harbour and marina run off from the maintenance
of harbour structures and boat cleaning areas,
- the use of biocides and detergents to clean
harbour structures and fixtures and protect them
from algal growth, and
- the maintenance of vessels in the harbour and
the use of antifouling paints to protect against
fouling of boats.
Many of the products that are used
in the care and maintenance of infrastructure and
vessels in port/harbour areas can be harmful to
the environment, particularly if used in carelessly
or in excess. Ports can only control maintenance
activities on the port estate. Pollution arising
from privately owned facilities is a matter for
the Environment Agency which is the relevant authority
responsible for the protection of controlled
waters from pollution under the Water Resources
Act 1991. In general, existing pollution control
powers will be sufficient for the purpose of protecting
marine SACs. However, in the context of SAC/SPA
management their powers may only be used where the
impacts relate to the features for which the site
has been designated.
The main legislative controls over the activities
involved in the maintenance of harbour operations
are listed below and summarised in Appendix
F. These are largely concerned with the use,
storage and disposal of harmful substances and duty
of care for the environment. Under the Water Resources
Act 1991 it is an offence to cause pollution in
controlled waters, either deliberately or accidentally.
List of legislation and regulations concerned with
the maintenance of harbour structures
- Control of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH)
- Environment Protection Act 1990.
- EC Directive on Biocides 1998.
- Food and Environment Protection Act, 1985.
- Health and Safety Executive (HSE) Regulations.
- Health and Safety at Work Act 1974.
- Town & Country Planning (Assessment of Environmental
Effects) Regulations 1995.
- Town & Country Planning (Environmental Assessment
and Permitted Development) Regulations 1988.
- Town & Country Planning (General Permitted
Development) Order 1995.
- Water Resources Act, 1991.
The most wide ranging regulations covering maintenance
activities is the Europe wide ban on the use of
TBT (tributyl tin) based paints in 1987 for craft
under 25m. The IMO have recently recommended a ban
on the use of TBT in antifouling paints from January
2003 and the presence of TBT on ships hulls will
be prohibited by 2008.
All of the biocides used in the marine industry
in the UK have received provisional approval from
the HSE and following a review process, copper may
become the first biocide to obtain full approval.
The recent EC Directive on biocides requires the
evaluation of all biocides by the year 2008 with
regard to their efficacy and safety to humans and
the environment. Only substances having passed this
evaluation, as 'low risk' or 'basic' substances,
will be listed in Annex I of the Directive and can
be placed on the market.