The potential effects of
This section focuses on the potential effects
which the infrastructure provided for water-based recreational
activities may have in marine areas. Issues relating to infrastructure
provided for land-based activities are dealt with elsewhere.
The issues associated with facilities provision for water-based
recreational activities are also addressed in a related report
on port and harbour operations ABP Research (1999)
The physical infrastructure to facilitate water-based
recreation ranges from an informal parking area and launch site,
through swinging mooring provision to fully serviced marina
operations. Boatyards and yacht clubs are also essential to
many of the water-based activities.
The potential impacts of recreational infrastructure
may occur both when the facility is being constructed, if it
is a new facility, and also while it is in use. During the construction
of recreational infrastructure, the magnitude of the impact
upon designated marine features depends upon factors such as
the specific location of the development, the scale of the scheme,
construction methods and project design and implementation.
The provision of such infrastructure can also have consequences
for the focus and concentration of boating activities. New marina
development in undeveloped areas may extend the range of boats,
allowing them to visit remoter locations otherwise inaccessible
due to time constraints or the risk of being weather-bound.
Impacts may be physical in nature, such as
destruction of habitat, or biological, such as changes in water
quality brought about by development.
While there are examples of boating facilities
on the open coast, the majority of facilities are situated in
more sheltered estuarine locations or harbours. Indeed the cost
of facilities on the open coast and the associated planning
constraints make it unlikely that many further developments
will take place in this type of location. A significant number
of coastal developments in the last 20 years have, however,
taken place in more sheltered locations in the intertidal zone.
The method of construction depends on the type
of conditions in which it is being built and the scale of the
project. For example, the favoured location for a marina operator
is one that is convenient for land and water access. Ideally,
it should also provide a natural sheltered basin requiring the
minimum of physical modification and therefore entailing minimum
construction costs. However, there are very few, if any, of
these locations remaining in which development would be permitted.
Therefore, new developments are likely to take place in locations
which require a greater degree of physical modification to the
site, or in existing ports and harbours.
Modification of habitats
Impacts on water quality
The relative effects of marinas and swinging
Impacts from land-side facilities
Summary of potential effects of boating-related