The terms used for each of the habitat factors (e.g. moderately strong tidal streams), as defined in Connor et al. (1997a, b)

Factor Category Definition
Salinity Fully marine 30-40 ‰
  Variable 18-40 ‰
  Reduced 18-30 ‰
  Low <18 ‰
Wave exposure Extremely exposed This category is for the few open coastlines which face into prevailing wind and receive oceanic swell without any offshore breaks (such as islands or shallows) for several thousand km and where deep water is close to the shore (50 m depth contour within about 300 m, e.g. Rockall).
  Very exposed These are open coasts which face into prevailing winds and receive oceanic swell without any offshore breaks (such as islands or shallows) for several hundred km but where deep water is not close (>300 m) to the shore. They can be adjacent to extremely exposed sites but face away from prevailing winds (here swell and wave action will refract towards these shores) or where, although facing away from prevailing winds, strong winds and swell often occur (for instance, the east coast of Fair Isle).
  Exposed At these sites, prevailing wind is onshore although there is a degree of shelter because of extensive shallow areas offshore, offshore obstructions, a restricted (<90o) window to open water. These sites will not generally be exposed to strong or regular swell. This can also include open coasts facing away from prevailing winds but where strong winds with a long fetch are frequent.
  Moderately exposed These sites generally include open coasts facing away from prevailing winds and without a long fetch but where strong winds can be frequent.
  Sheltered At these sites, there is a restricted fetch and/or open water window. Coasts can face prevailing winds but with a short fetch (say <20 km) or extensive shallow areas offshore or may face away from prevailing winds.
  Very sheltered These sites are unlikely to have a fetch greater than 20 km (the exception being through a narrow (<30o) open water window, they face away from prevailing winds or have obstructions, such as reefs, offshore.
  Extremely sheltered These sites are fully enclosed with fetch no greater than about 3 km.
  Ultra sheltered Sites with fetch of a few tens or at most 100s of metres.
    In the classification exposed (as in exposed littoral rock) encompasses the extremely exposed, very exposed and exposed categories, whilst sheltered (as in sheltered littoral rock) encompasses sheltered to ultra sheltered categories.
Tidal streams/currents (maximum at surface) Very strong >6 knots (>3 m/sec.)
  Strong 3-6 knots (1.5-3 m/sec.)
  Moderately strong 1-3 knots (0.5-1.5 m/sec.)
  Weak <1 knot (<0.5 m/sec.)
  Very weak Negligible
    In the classification tide-swept habitats typically have moderately strong or stronger tidal streams.
Zone Supralittoral Colonised by yellow and grey lichens, above the Littorina populations but generally below flowering plants.
  Upper littoral fringe This is the splash zone above High Water of Spring Tides with a dense band of the black lichen by Verrucaria maura. Littorina saxatilis and Littorina neritoides often present. May include saltmarsh species on shale/pebbles in shelter.
  Lower littoral fringe The Pelvetia (in shelter) or Porphyra (exposed) belt. With patchy Verrucaria maura, Verrucaria mucosa and Lichina pygmaea present above the main barnacle population. May also include saltmarsh species on shale/pebbles in shelter.
  Upper eulittoral Barnacles and limpets present in quantity or with dense Fucus spiralis in sheltered locations.
  Mid eulittoral Barnacle-limpet dominated, sometimes mussels or dominated by Fucus vesiculosus and Ascophyllum nodosum in sheltered locations. Mastocarpus stellatus and Palmaria palmata patchy in lower part. Usually quite a wide belt.
  Lower eulittoral Fucus serratus, Mastocarpus stellatus, Himanthalia elongata or Palmaria palmata variously dominant; barnacles sparse.
  Sublittoral fringe Dominated by Alaria esculenta (very exposed), Laminaria digitata (exposed to sheltered) or Laminaria saccharina (very sheltered) with encrusting coralline algae; barnacles sparse.
  Upper infralittoral Dense forest of kelp.
  Lower infralittoral Sparse kelp park dominated by foliose algae except where grazed. May lack kelp.
  Upper circalittoral Dominated by animals, lacking kelp but with sparse foliose algae except where grazed.
  Lower circalittoral Dominated by animals with no foliose algae but encrusting coralline algae.
    Zone definitions primarily relate to rocky habitats or those where algae grow (e.g. stable shallow sublittoral sediments). For use of the terms infralittoral and circalittoral, especially for sediments, in the classification refer also to Table 2.2 in Connor et al. (1997a, b).
Substratum Bedrock Includes very soft rock-types such as chalk, peat and clay.
  Boulders Very large (>1024 mm), large (512-1024 mm), small (256-512 mm)
  Cobbles 64-256 mm
  Pebbles 16-64 mm
  Gravel 4-16 mm
  Coarse sand 1-4 mm
  Medium sand 0.25-1 mm
  Fine sand 0.063 - 0.25 mm
  Mud <0.063 mm (the silt/clay fraction)
    In the classification, bedrock, stable boulders, cobbles or pebbles and habitats of mixed boulder, cobble, pebble and sediment (mixed substrata) as well as artificial substrata (concrete, wood, metal) are collectively referred to as rock. Highly mobile cobbles and pebbles (shingle), together with gravel, coarse, medium and fine sand are collectively referred to as gravels and sands. Mixed sediment consists of various mixtures of gravel, sand and mud and may often have shells and stones also.

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