Background Reading and Literature Cited

Literature cited in the text of this review is listed below, together with a selection of other articles and books relevant to the ecology of kelp beds.

The publications indicated by underlining the citation are, in our opinion, sources of useful background information for readers who are unfamiliar with kelp beds and their ecology. In particular, Lüning (1990) is an excellent source of information and contains an extensive bibliography.

Akiyama, K., 1965. Studies of ecology and culture of Undaria pinnatifida (Harv.) Sur. II. Environmental factors affecting the growth and maturation of gametophyte. Bull. Tohoku Reg. Fish. Res. Lab. 25: 143-170.

Andrew, N.L., 1993. Spatial heterogeneity, sea urchin grazing, and habitat structure on reefs in temperate Australia. Ecology, 74: 292-302.

Arzell, P., 1996. Tests d’exploitation du Laminaria hyperborea. Rapport final. IFREMER, 15 pp.

Baardseth, E., 1954. Kvantitative tareundersųkelser I Lofoten og Salten sommeren 1952. Norsk Institutt for Tang- og Tareforskning, No. 6: 47 pp.

Baardseth, E., 1956. The growth rings in Alaria stipes. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium, 2: 153-157. T. Braarud & N.A. Sorensen (Eds.), Trondheim, Pergamon Press, London.

Barilotti, D.C., & Zertuche-Gonzalez, J.A., 1990. Ecological effects of seaweed harvesting in the Gulf of California and Pacific Ocean off Baja California and Califorinia. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium: 13: 35-40.

Barilotti, D.C., McPeak, R.H., & Dayton, P.K., 1985. Experimental studies on the effects of commercial kelp harvesting in central and southern Californian Macrocystis pyrifera kelp beds. Californian Fish and Game, 71: 4-20.

Beer, S., Vilenkin, B., Weil, A., Veste, M., Susel, L. & Eshel A., 1998. Measuring photosynthetic rates in seagrasses by pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometry. Marine Ecology Progress Series, in press.

Bell, S.S., Hicks, G.R.F. & Walters, K., 1983. Experimental investigation of benthic re-entry by migrating meiobenthic copepods. J. exp. mar. Biol. Ecol. 130: 291-303.

Benwell, M.P., 1981. Meiofaunal nematodes and the decomposition of kelp. Ph.D. thesis, University of Glasgow (cited in Moore, 1983).

Bernstein, B.B., Williams B.E. & Mann, K.H. 1981. The role of behavioural responses to predators in modifying sea urchins (Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis) destructive grazing and seasonal foraging patterns. Marine Biology, 63: 39-49.

Beveridge, M.C.M., Ross, L.G. & Stewart, J.A., 1997. The development of mariculture and its implications for biodiversity. In Ormond, R.F.G., Gage, J.D. & Angel, M.V. (Eds.) Marine Biodiversity. Patterns and Processes. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 372-393.

Birkett, D.A., 1993. Effects of light on phosphate uptake by marine macroalgae. PhD thesis, Queen’s University Belfast.

Black, W.R., 1974. Some biological interactions affecting intertidal populations of the kelp Egregia laevigata. Marine Biology, 28: 189-198.

Boaden, P.J.S., 1995. Concerning the meiofaunal community of Fucus serratus epifauna. In: Biology and ecology of shallow coastal waters . Eleftheriou, A., Ansell, A.D. & Smith, C.J., (eds). Olsen & Olsen Fredensborg. pp. 107-114.

Bodkin, J.L., 1988. Effects of kelp forest removal on associated fish assemblages in central California. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 117: 227-238.

Bold, H.C. & Wynne, M.J., 1978. Introduction to the Algae. Prentice-Hall, New Jersey.

Boney, A.D., 1965. Aspects of the biology of seaweeds of economic importance. Advances in Marine Biology, 3: 105-253.

Breen, P.A. & Mann, K.H., 1976. Changing lobster abundance and the destruction of kelp beds by sea urchins. Marine Biology, 34: 137-142.

Briggs, J.C., 1974. Marine zoogeography. McGraw-Hill, New York.

Burrows, E.M., 1971. Assessment of pollution effects of the use of algae. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B. 177: 295-300.

Castric-Fey, A., Girard, A. & L’Hardy-Halos, M.T., 1993. The distribution of Undaria pinnatifida (Phaeophyceae, Laminariales) on the coast of St. Malo (Brittany, France). Botanica Mar. 36: 351-358

Chapman, A.R.O., 1984. Reproduction, recruitment and mortality in two species of Laminaria in southwest Nova Scotia. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 78: 99-109.

Chapman, A.R.O., 1986. Population and community ecology of seaweeds. Advances in Marine Biology, 23: 1-161.

Chapman, A.R.O., 1987. The wild harvest and culture of Laminaria longicruris de la Pylaie in Eastern Canada. In M.S. Doty, T.F. Caddy & B. Santelices (Eds.). Case studies of seven commercial seaweed resources. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper, 181: 193-238.

Chapman, A.R.O. & Johnson, C.R., 1990. Disturbance and organisation of macroalgal assemblages in the northwest Atlantic. Hydrobiologia, 192: 77-121.

Chapman, V.J., 1948. Seaweed resources along the shores of Great Britain Economic Botany, 2: 363-378.

Chapman, V.J., & Chapman, D.J., 1980. Seaweeds and their uses. Chapman and Hall, London, 3rd edition.

Conlan, K.E. & Chess, J.R., 1992. Phylogeny and ecology of a kelp-boring amphipod, Peramphithoe stypotrupetes, new species (Corophioidea - Ampithoidae). J. Crustacean Biol., 12: 410-422.

Connor, D.W., Brazier, D.P., Hill, T.O. & Northern, K.O., 1997. Marine Nature Conservation Review: marine biotope classification for Britain and Ireland. Volume 1. Littoral biotopes. Version 97.06 JNCC Report, No. 229.

Connor, D.W., Dalkin, M.J., Hill, T.O., Holt, R.H.F. & Sanderson, W.G., 1997. Marine Nature Conservation Review: marine biotope classification for Britain and Ireland. Volume 2. Sublittoral biotopes. Version 97.06 JNCC Report, No. 230.

Connor, D.W., Hiscock, K., Foster-Smith R. & Covey, R., 1995. A classification system for marine benthic biotopes. In: Biology and ecology of shallow coastal waters . Eleftheriou, A., Ansell, A.D. & Smith, C.J., (Eds) Olsen & Olsen, Fredensborg. pp. 155-166.

Coon, D., 1987. Measurements of harvested and unharvested populations of the marine crop plant Macrocystis. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium, 8: 678-687.

Dauvin, J.-C., 1997. Les Biocénoses marines et littorales franēaises des cōtes Atlantique, Manche et Mer du Nord. Synthčse, menaces et perspectives. Collection Patrimoine Naturels, No. 28. Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris.

Davies, J., Foster-Smith, R. & Sotheran, I.S., 1997. Marine biological mapping for environment management using acoustic ground discrimination systems and geographic information systems. Underwater Technology, 22: 167-172.

Davison, I.R., 1987. Adaptation of photosynthesis in Laminaria saccharina (Phaeophyta) to changes in growth temperature. J. Phycol., 23: 273-283.

Dayton, P.K., 1975. Experimental studies of algal canopy interactions in a sea-otter dominated kelp community at Amchitka Island, Alaska. Fisheries Bulletin, 73: 230-237.

Dayton, P.K., 1985. Ecology of kelp communities. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 16: 215-245.

Dayton, P.K., Currie, V., Gerrodette, T., Keller, B.D., Rosenthal, R. & Tresca, D.V., 1984. Patch dynamics and stability of some Californian kelp communities. Ecological Monographs, 54: 253-289.

Dayton, P.K., Tegner, M.J., Parnell, P.E. & Edwards, P.B., 1992. Temporal and spatial patterns of disturbance and recovery in a kelp forest community. Ecological Monographs, 62: 421-445.

Devinny, J.S. & Volse, L.A., 1978. Effects of sediments on the development of Macrocystis pyrifera gametophytes. Mar. Biol. 48: 343-348.

Deysher, L.E. & Dean, T.A., 1986. In situ recruitment of sporophytes of the giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera (L.) C.A. Agardh: Effect of physical factors. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 103: 41-63.

Drach, P., 1949. Premičres recherches en scaphandre autonome sur les formations de laminaires en zone littorale profonde. Comptes Rendus Sommaire des Séances-Societe de Biogéographie de Paris, 227: 46-49.

Drew, E.A., Jupp, J.P., & Robertson, W.A.A., 1976. Photosynthesis and growth of Laminaria hyperborea in British waters. In Underwater Research, E.A. Drew, J.N., Lythgoe & J.S. Woods, (Eds.) Academic Press, London, pp. 369-380.

Dring, M.J., 1982. The Biology of Marine Plants. Edward Arnold, London.

Dring, M.J., 1987. Light climate in intertidal and subtidal zones in relation to photosynthesis and growth of benthic algae: a theoretical model. In: Plant life in aquatic and amphibious habitats. R.M.M. Crawford, Ed. Blackwell, Oxford. pp. 23-34.

Dring, M.J., 1988. Photocontrol of development in algae. Ann. Rev. Plant Physiol. Plant Mol. Biol. 39: 157-174

Dring, M.J., 1989. Stimulation of light-saturated photosynthesis in Laminaria (Phaeophyta) by blue light. J. Phycol., 25: 254-258.

Dring, M.J., Akarov, V., Schoschina, E., Lorenz, M. & Lüning, K., 1996. Influence of ultraviolet-radiation on chlorophyll fluorescence and growth in different life-history stages of three species of Laminaria (phaeophyta). Marine Biology, 126: 183-191.

Dunton, K.H., 1990. Growth and production in Laminaria solidungula: relation to continuous underwater light levels in the Alaskan High Arctic. Mar. Biol. (Berlin) 106: 297-304.

Earll, R. & Farnham, W., 1983. Biogeography. In: Sublittoral ecology. The ecology of the shallow sublittoral benthos. Earll, R. & Erwin, D.G. (Eds.), Clarendon Press, Oxford. pp. 165-208.

Ebeling, A.W., Laur, D.R., & Rowley, R.J., 1985. Severe storm disturbances and reversal of community structure in a southern Californian kelp forest. Marine Biology, 84: 287-294.

Edwards, A.J., 1980. Ecological studies of the kelp Laminaria hyperborea, and its associated fauna in south-west Ireland. Ophelia 19: 47-60.

Elner, R.W., & Vadas, Sr R.L., 1990. Interference in ecology: the sea urchin phenomenon in the northwestern Atlantic. American Naturalist, 136: 108-125.

Eno, N.C., Clark, R.A. & Sanderson, W.G. (Eds.) 1997. Non-native marine species in British waters: a review and directory. JNCC, Peterborough.

Eriksson, B.K., Johansson, G. & Snoeijs, P., 1998. Long-term changes in the sublittoral zonation of brown algae in the southern Bothnian Sea. Eur. J. Phycol. 33: in press.

Erwin, D.G., Picton, B.E., Connor, D.W., Howson, C.M., Gilleece, P. & Bogues, M.J., 1986. The Northern Ireland sublittoral survey. Unpublished report to the Conservation Branch, Department of the Environment (N.I.). 127 pp. + appendices and maps.

Erwin, D.G., Picton, B.E., Connor, D.W., Howson, C.M., Gilleece, P. & Bogues, M.J., 1990. Inshore marine life of Northern Ireland. HMSO: Belfast.

Estes, J.A., Jameson, R.J., & Rhode, E.B., 1982. Activity and prey selection in the sea otter: influence of population status on community structure. American Naturalist, 120: 242-258.

Fletcher, R.F., 1996. The occurrence of "green tides" - a review. In Marine Benthic Vegetation. Recent Changes and the Effects of Eutrophication. Schramm, W. & Nienhuis, P.H. (Eds.) Springer, Berlin, pp. 7-43.

Forbes, E. (& Godwin-Austen, R.), 1859. The natural history of the European seas. Van Voorst, London.

Fredriksen, S., Sjųtun, K., Lein, T.E. & Rueness, J., 1995. Spore dispersal in Laminaria hyperborea (Laminariales, Phaeophyceae). Sarsia 80: 47-53.

Gayral, P. & Cosson, J., 1973. Exposé synoptique des données biologiques sur la laminaire digitée Laminaria digitata. Synopsis FAO sur les pźches, no. 89.

Gowen, R.J. & Bradbury, N.B., 1987. The ecological impact of salmonid farming in coastal waters: a review. Oceanogr. Mar. Biol. Annu. Rev. 25: 563-575.

Grenager, B., 1956. Kvantitative undersųkelser av tareforekomster i Ųst-Finnmark, Troms 1953. Norsk Institutt for Tang- og Tareforskning, no. 13. 37 pp.

Gubbay, S., 1988. A coastal directory for marine nature conservation. Marine Conservation Society, Ross-on-Wye.

Guiry, M.D., & Blunden, G., (Eds.), 1991. Seaweed resources in Europe: Uses and potential. Wiley, Chichester.

Gunnarson, K., 1991. Populations de Laminaria hyperborea et Laminaria digitata (Phéophycées) dans la Baie de Breišifjoršur, Islande. Rit Fiskideildar, 12: 1-148.

Hagen, N.T., 1983. Destructive grazing of kelp beds by sea urchins in Vestfjorden, Norway. Sarsia, 72: 213-229.

Harcher, B.G., Chapman, a.r.o., & Mann, K.H., 1977. An annual carbon budget for the kelp Laminaria longicruris. Marine Biology, 44: 85-96.

Harkin, E., 1981. Fluctuations in epiphyte biomass following Laminaria hyperborea canopy removal. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium, 10: 303-308.

Hay, J.M., 1952. Harvesting of brown sublittoral seaweeds. II. The continuous grapnel method. The Engineer, June 20, 1952, pp. 814-817.

Hicks, G.R.F., 1980. The structure of phytal harpacticoid assemblages and the influence of habitat complexity and turbidity. J. exp. mar. Biol. Ecol. 44: 157-192.

Hiscock, K., 1983. Water movement. In: Sublittoral ecology. The ecology of the shallow sublittoral benthos. Earll, R. & Erwin, D.G., (Eds.), Clarendon Press, Oxford. pp. 58-96.

Hiscock, K., 1985. Aspects of the ecology of rocky sublittoral areas. In The ecology of rocky coasts. Moore, p.g., & Seed R., (Eds.), Hodder & Stoughton, London. pp. 290-328.

Hiscock, K., 1997. Conserving biodiversity in North-East Atlantic marine ecosystems. In Marine Biodiversity. Patterns and Processes. Ormond, R.F.G., Gage, J.D. & Angel, M.V. (Eds.) Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 415-427.

Hiscock, K., 1998a. Biological monitoring of marine Special Areas of Conservation: a handbook of methods for detecting change. Part 1. Review and description of methods. JNCC, Peterborough.

Hiscock, K., 1998b. Procedural guidelines for in situ surveillance of sublittoral (epibiota) biotopes using diving. In: Biological monitoring of marine Special Areas of Conservation: a handbook of methods for detecting change. Part 2. Procedural guidelines, K. Hiscock, (Ed.), 3 pp. JNCC, Peterborough.

Hiscock, K. & Bullimore, B., 1998. Procedural guidelines for quantitative surveillance of sublittoral biotopes and species using photographs. In: Biological monitoring of marine Special Areas of Conservation: a handbook of methods for detecting change. Part 2. Procedural guidelines, K. Hiscock, (Ed.), 6 pp. JNCC, Peterborough.

Hiscock, K. & Mitchell, R., 1980. The description and classification of sublittoral epibenthic ecosystems. In: The shore environment, Vol. 2: Ecosystems. Price, J.H., Irvine, D.E.G. & Farnham, W.F., (Eds.). Academic Press, London. pp. 323-370.

Hiscock, S., 1984. Marine algae communities of the St. Abbs area, south-east Scotland. NCC.

Howson, C.M., Connor, D.W. & Holt, R.H.F., 1994. The Scottish sealochs - an account of surveys undertaken for the Marine Nature Conservation Review. (Contractor: University Marine Biological Station, Millport). JNCC Report No. 164.

Hruby, T., 1975. Seasonal changes in two algal populations from the coastal waters of Washington State. J. Ecol. 63: 881-889.

Irvine, L.M. & Chamberlain, Y.M., 1994. Seaweeds of the British Isles, Volume I. Rhodophyta. Part 2b, Corallines, Hildenbrandiales. Natural History Museum, London.

Jackson, P., 1952. Harvesting brown sublittoral seaweeds. I. Assessment of the problem and review of preliminary experiments. The Engineer, May 30th, 1952, pp. 718-720.

Jackson, P., 1957. Harvesting machinery for brown sublittoral seaweeds no 1. The Engineer, March 15th, 1957, pp. 400-402.

Jackson, P., & Wolff, R., 1955. Sublittoral seaweed harvester. Research (London), 8: 435-444.

Jarman, N.G. & Carter, R.A., 1981. The primary producers of the inshore regions of the Benguela. Trans. R. Soc. S. Afr. 44: 321-326.

Jensen, A., 1993. Present and future needs for algae and algal products. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium, 14: 15-23.

Jerlov, N.G., 1951. Optical studies of ocean waters. Rep. Swed.Deep-Sea Exped. 3: 1-59

Jerlov, N.G., 1974. A simple method for measuring quanta irradiance in the ocean. Rep. Kjob. Univ. Inst. Fys. Oceanogr. 24: 1-7.

Johnston, C.S., 1985. The seaweed potential of Orkney waters. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 87b: 1-14.

Johnston, C.S., Jones, R.G., & Hunt, R.D., 1977. A seasonal carbon budget for a laminarian population in a Scottish sea loch. Helgoländer Wiss. Meeresunters., 30: 527-545.

Jones, D.J., 1971. Ecological studies on macro-invertebrate communities associated with polluted kelp forest in the North Sea. Helgoländer Wiss. Meeresunters. 22: 417-431.

Jones, D.J., 1972. Changes in the ecological balance of invertebrate communities in kelp holdfast habitats of some polluted North Sea waters. Helgoländer Wiss. Meeresunters., 23: 248-260.

Jones, N.S., & Kain, J.M., 1967. Subtidal algal colonisation following the removal of Echinus. Helgoländer Wiss. Meeresunters., 15: 460-466.

Jupp, B.P., & Drew, E.A., 1974. Studies on the growth of Laminaria hyperborea (Gunn.) Fosl. 1. Biomass and productivity. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 15: 185-196.

Kain, J.M., 1962. Aspects of the biology of Laminaria hyperborea. I . Vertical distribution. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 42: 377-385.

Kain, J.M., 1963a. Aspects of the biology of Laminaria hyperborea. I I . Age, weight and length. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 43: 129-151.

Kain, J.M., 1963b. Aspects of the biology of Laminaria hyperborea. I I I . Survival and growth of gametophytes. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 44: 415-433.

Kain, J.M., 1964. A study on the ecology of Laminaria hyperborea. (Gunn.) Fosl. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium, 4: 207-214.

Kain, J.M., 1965. Aspects of the biology of Laminaria hyperborea. I V. Growth of early sporophytes. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 45: 129-143.

Kain, J.M., 1967. Populations of Laminaria hyperborea. at various latitudes. Helgolander Wissenschaftliche Meeresuntersuchungen, 15: 489-499.

Kain, J.M., 1969. The biology of Laminaria hyperborea. V. Comparison with early stages of competitors. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 49: 455-473.

Kain, J.M., 1971a. The biology of Laminaria hyperborea. VI. Some Norwegian populations. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 51: 387-408.

Kain, J.M., 1971b. Synopsis of biological data on Laminaria hyperborea. FAO Fisheries Synopsis, no. 87.

Kain, J.M., 1972. Reproduction and colonisation in Laminaria hyperborea. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium, 7: 400.

Kain, J.M., 1975. Algal recolonisation of some cleared subtidal areas. Journal of Ecology, 63: 739-765.

Kain, J.M., 1976a. The biology of Laminaria hyperborea. VIII. Growth on cleared areas. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 56: 267-290.

Kain, J.M., 1976b. The biology of Laminaria hyperborea. IX. Growth pattern of fronds. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 56: 603-628.

Kain, J.M., 1977. The biology of Laminaria hyperborea. X. The effect of depth on some populations. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 57: 587-607.

Kain, J.M., 1979. A view of the genus Laminaria. Oceanography and Marine Biology: an Annual Review, 17: 101-161.

Kain, J.M., Drew, E.A., & Jupp, B.P., 1975. Light and the ecology of Laminaria hyperborea. II. In: Light as an Ecological Factor. G.C. Evans, R. Bainbridge & O. Rackham, (Eds.), British Ecological Society Symposium, 16: 63-92. Blackwell, Oxford.

Kain, J.M. & Svendsen, P., 1969. A note on the behaviour of Patina pellucidum in Britain and Norway. Sarsia, 38: 25-30.

Keats, D.W., 1991. Refugial Laminaria abundance and reduction in urchin grazing in communities in the north-west Atlantic. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 71: 867-876.

Kennelly, S.J. 1983. An experimental approach to the study of factors affecting algal colonisation in a sublittoral kelp forest. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 68: 257-276.

Kennelly, S.J. 1987a. Physical disturbances in an Australian kelp community. I. Temporal effects. Marine Ecology-Progress Series, 49: 145-153.

Kennelly, S.J. 1987b. Physical disturbances in an Australian kelp community. II. Effects on understorey species due to difference in kelp cover. Marine Ecology-Progress Series, 40: 155-165.

Kennelly, S.J. & Underwood, A.J., 1992. Fluctuations in the distributions and abundances of species in sublittoral kelp forests in New South Wales. Austr. J. Ecol., 17: 367-382.

Kennelly, S.J. & Underwood, A.J., 1993. Geographic consistencies of effects of experimental physical disturbance on understorey species in sublittoral kelp forests in central New South Wales. J. exp. mar. Biol. Ecol. 168: 35-58.

Khailov, K.M., & Burlacova, Z.P., 1969. Release of dissolved organic matter by marine seaweeds and distribution of their total organic production to inshore communities. Limnology and Oceanography, 14: 521-527.

Kitching, J.A., 1941. Studies in sublittoral ecology III. Laminaria forest on the west coast of Scotland; a study of zonation in relation to wave action and illumination. Biological Bulletin. Marine Biological Laboratory, Wood’s Hole, 80: 324-337.

Knight-Jones, P. & Knight-Jones, E.W., 1977. Taxonomy and ecology of British Spirorbidae (Polychaeta). J. mar. biol. Ass. U.K. 57: 453-499.

Larkum, A.W.D., 1972. Frond structure and growth in Laminaria hyperborea. J. mar. biol. Ass. U.K. 52: 405-418.

Larson, R.J., & Demartini, E.E., 1984. Abundance and vertical distribution of fishes in a cobble-bottom kelp forest off San Onofre, California. U.S. National Marine Fisheries Service. Fisheries Bulletin, 82: 37-53.

Lawrence, J.M., 1975. On the relationship between marine plants and sea urchins (Echinodermata: Echinoidea). Oceanography and Marine Biology Annual Review, pp. 213-286.

Leighton, D.L., 1971. Grazing activities of benthic invertebrates in southern California kelp beds. Beihefte zur Nova Hedwigia, 32: 421-453.

Leinaas, H.P. & Christie, H., 1996. Effects of removing sea-urchins (Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis) - stability of the barren state and succession of kelp forest recovery in the east Atlantic. Oecologia, 105: 524-536.

Lobban, C.S. & Harrison, P.J., 1994. Seaweed Ecology and Physiology. Ed. 2. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 366 pp.

Lüning, K., 1970. Tauchuntersuchungen zur vertikalverbreitung der sublitoralen Helgoländer algenvegetation. Helgoländer wiss. Meeresunters. 21: 271-291.

Lüning, K., 1971. Seasonal growth of Laminaria hyperborea under recorded underwater light conditions near Helgoland. In: Proceedings of the Fourth European Marine Biology Symposium, D.J. Crisp (Ed.), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 347-361.

Lüning, K., 1979. Growth strategies of three Laminaria species (Phaeophyceae) inhabiting different depth zones in the sublittoral region of Helgoland (North Sea). Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 1: 195-207

Lüning, K., 1988. Photoperiodic control of sorus formation in the brown alga Laminaria saccharina. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 45: 137-144.

Lüning, K., 1990. Seaweeds, their environment, biogeography and ecophysiology. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 527 pp.

Lüning, K. & Dring, M.J., 1979. Continuous underwater light conditions near Helgoland (North Sea) and its significance for characteristic light limits in the sublittoral region. Helgoländer Wiss. Meeresunters., 32: 403-424.

Lüning, K., Schmitz, K. & Willenbrink, J., 1973. CO2 fixation and translocation in benthic marine algae. III. Rates and ecological significance of translocation in Laminaria hyperborea and L. saccharina. Mar. Biol. 23: 275-281.

Maggs, C.A., 1986. Scottish marine macroalgae: a distributional checklist, biogeographical analysis and literature abstract. Report for the Nature Conservancy Council.

Mann, K.H., 1972a. Ecological energetics of the seaweed zone in a marine bay on the Atlantic coast of Canada. I. Zonation and biomass of seaweeds. Marine Biology, 12: 1-10.

Mann, K.H., 1972b. Ecological energetics of the seaweed zone in a marine bay on the Atlantic coast of Canada. II. Productivity of the seaweeds. Mar. Biol. 14: 199-209.

Mann, K.H., 1977. Destruction of kelp beds by sea urchins: a cyclical phenomenon or irreversible degradation. Helgoländer Wiss. Meeresunters., 30: 455-467.

Mann, K.H., 1982a. The ecology of coastal waters: a systems approach. Blackwell, Oxford.

Mann, K.H., 1982b. Kelp, sea urchins and predators: a review of strong interactions in rocky subtidal systems of eastern Canada, 1970-1980. Neth. J. Sea Res. 16: 414-423.

Mann, K.H. & Breen, P.A., 1972. The relation between lobster abundance, sea urchins, and kelp beds. J. Fish. Res. Bd. Can. 29: 603-605.

McGrath, D., 1992. Recruitment and growth of the blue rayed limpet Helcion pellucidum (L.) in south-eastern Ireland. J. Molluscan Stud., 58: 425-431.

Michanek, G., 1975. Seaweed resources of the ocean. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper no. 138.

Miller, R.J., 1985a. Seaweeds, Sea urchins and lobsters: a reappraisal. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science, 42: 2062-2071.

Miller, R.J., 1985b. Succession in sea urchin and seaweed abundance in Nova Scotia, Canada. Marine Biology, 84: 275-286.

Miller, R.J., 1985c. Sea urchin pathogen: a possible tool for biological control. Marine Ecology-Progress Series, 21: 169-174.

Moore, P.G., 1971. The nematode fauna associated with holdfasts of kelp (Laminaria hyperborea) in North East Britain. J. mar. biol. Ass. U.K. 51: 589-604.

Moore, P.G., 1973a. The kelp fauna of north-east Britain. I. Introduction and the physical environment. J. exp. mar. Biol. Ecol. 13: 97-125.

Moore, P.G., 1973b. The kelp fauna of north-east Britain. II. Multivariate classification: turbidity as an ecological factor. J. exp. mar. Biol. Ecol. 13: 127-163.

Moore, P.G., 1983. Biological interactions. In: Sublittoral ecology. The ecology of the shallow sublittoral benthos. Earll, R. & Erwin, D.G. (Eds.), Clarendon Press, Oxford. pp. 125-143.

North, W.J., 1968. Concluding discussion. In: Utilization of kelp bed resources in Southern California. North, W.J., & Stubbs, C.L., (Eds.). Californian Department of Fisheries and Game, Fisheries Bulletin, 139: 255-259.

North, W.J., 1980. Use of Macrocystis embryos, grown in mass culture to restore depleted kelp beds. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium, 8: 443-448.

North, W.J., 1987. Biology of Macrocystis resource in North America. In: Case studies of seven commercial seaweed resources. M.S. Doty, T.F. Caddy & B. Santelices (Eds.), FAO Fisheries Technical Paper, 181: 267-331.

North, W.J., Pearse, J.S., 1970. Sea urchin population explosion in Southern California coastal waters. Science, 9 January, 1970, p. 209.

Norton, 1970. Synopsis of biological data on Sacchorhiza polyschides. FAO Fisheries synopsis no. 83.

Norton, T.A., Hiscock, K. & Kitching, J.A., 1977. The ecology of Lough Ine. XX. The Laminaria forest at Carrigathorna. Journal of Ecology, 65: 919-941.

Norton, T.A., & Powell, H.T., 1979. Seaweeds and rocky shores of the Outer Hebrides. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 77b: 141-153.

Novaczek, I., & McLachlan, J., 1986. Recolonisation by algae of the sublittoral habitat of Halifax County, Nova Scotia, following the demise of sea urchins. Botanica Marina, 29: 69-73

O’Brien, P.Y. & Dixon, P.S., 1976. The effects of oils and oil components on algae: a review. Br. phycol. J. 11: 115-142.

Pace, D., 1980. Kelp community development in Berkley Sound, British Columbia following sea urchin removal. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium, 8: 457-463.

Parke, M., 1948. Studies on the British Laminariaceae. I. Growth in Laminaria saccharina (L.) Lamour. J. Mar. Biol. Ass. U.K. 27: 651-709.

Perez, R., 1969. Etude biométrique d’une population de Laminaria digitata Lamouroux de l’étage infralittoral profond. Rev. Trav. Inst. Pźches Marit. 175.

Phillips, J.C., Kendrick, G.A. & Lavery, P.S., 1997. A test of a functional group approach to detecting shifts in macroalgal communities along a disturbance gradient. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 153: 125-138

Pringle, J.D., & Sharp, G.J., 1980. Multispecies resource management of economically important plant communities of eastern Canada. Helgoländer Wiss. Meeresunters., 33: 711-720.

Reed, D.C., 1987. Factors affecting the production of sporophylls in the giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera (L.). C.Ag. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 13: 61-69.

Reed, D.C., 1990. The effects of variable settlement and early competition on patterns of kelp recruitment. Ecology, 71: 776- 787.

Reed, D.C., & Foster, M.S., 1984. The effects of canopy shading on algal recruitment and growth in a giant kelp forest. Ecology, 65: 937-948.

Rinde, E., Christie, H., Fredriksen, S. & Sivertsen, A., 1992. Ųkologiske konsekvenser av taretråling: Betydning av tareskogens struktur for forekomst av hapterfauna, bunnfauna og epifytter. NINA Oppdragsmelding, 127: 1-37.

Ryland, J.S. & Stebbing, A.R.D., 1971. Settlement and oriented growth in epiphytic and epizooic bryozoans. In: Proceedings of the fourth European Marine Biology Symposium. Crisp, D.J. (Ed)., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. pp. 105-123.

Santelices, B., & Ojeda, F.P., 1984a. Effects of canopy removal on the understorey algal community structure of coastal forests of Macrocystis pyrifera from South America. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 14: 165-173.

Santelices, B., & Ojeda, F.P., 1984b. Population dynamics of coastal forests of Macrocystis pyrifera in Puerto Toro, Isla (Navarino, Southern Chile). Marine Ecology Progress Series, 14: 175-183.

Santos, R., 1993. A multivariate study of biotic and abiotic relationships in a subtidal algal stand. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 94: 181-190.

Schaffelke, B., Peters, A.F & Reusch, TB.H., 1996. Factors influencing depth distribution of soft bottom inhabiting Laminaria saccharina (L.) Lamour. in Kiel Bay, Western Baltic. Hydrobiol. 326/7: 117-123

Schramm, W., 1972. The effects of oil pollution on gas exchange in Porphyra umbilicalis when exposed to air. Proc. Int. Seaweed Symp., 7: 309-315.

Schroeter, S.C., Dixon, J.D., Kastendiek, J. & Smith, R.O., 1993. Detecting the ecological effects of environmental impacts - a case-study of kelp forest invertebrates. Ecological Applications, 3: 331-350.

Schulze, K., Janke, K., Kruss, A., & Weidemann, W., 1990. The macrofauna and macroflora associated with Laminaria digitata and L. hyperborea at the Island of Helgoland (German Bight, North Sea). Helgoländer Meeresunters., 44: 39-51.

Seed, R. & O’Connor,. R.J., 1981. Community organisation in marine algal epifaunas. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 12: 49-74.

Sheppard, C.R.C., Bellamy, D.J. & Shepphard, A.L.S., 1980. Study of the fauna inhabiting the holdfasts of Laminaria hyperborea (Gunn.) Fosl. along some environmental and geographical gradients. Mar. env. Res. 4: 25-51.

Sieburth, J., McN., 1969. Studies on algal substances in the sea. III. The production of extracellular organic matter by littoral marine algae. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 3: 290-309.

Sivertsen, K., 1991. Hųsting av stortareog gjenvekst av tare etter taretråling Ved Smųla, Mųre Og Romsdal. Fisken og Havet, 1: 44pp.

Sjųtun, K., 1995. Adaptive aspects of growth and reproduction in two North Atlantic Laminaria species. Dr. Scient. thesis. Dept. Fish. & Mar. Biol. University of Bergen, Norway.

Sjųtun, K., Fredriksen, S., Lein, T.E., Rueness, J., & Sivertsen, K., 1993. Population studies of Laminaria hyperborea from its northern range of distribution in Norway. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium, 14: 215-221.

Smith, B.D., 1986. Implications of population dynamics and interspecific competition for harvest management of the seaweed Laminaria. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 33: 7-18.

Stephens, Jr. J.S., Morris, P.A., Zerba, K., & Love, M., 1984. Factors affecting fish diversity on a temperate reef; the fish assemblage of Palos Verdes Point 1974-1981. Environmental Biology of Fishes, 11: 259-275.

Sundene, O., 1962. The implications of transplant and culture experiments on the growth and distribution of Alaria esculenta. Nytt. Mag. Bot. 9: 155-174.

Svendsen, P., 1972. Some observations on commercial harvesting and regrowth of Laminaria hyperborea. Fiskets Gang, 22: 448-460.

Svendsen , P. & Kain, J.M., 1971. The taxonomic status, distribution and morphology of Laminaria cucculata sensu Jorde & Klavestad. Sarsia, 46: 1-22.

Tegner, M.J., Dayton, P.K., Edwards, P.B. & Riser, K.L., 1996. Is there evidence for long-term climatic change in southern California kelp forests? Calif. Cooperative Oceanic Fish. Investigations Rep., 37: 111-126

Thompson, W.P.L., 1983. Kelp making in Orkney. The Orkney Press, Stromness.

Thrush, S.F., 1986. The sublittoral macrobenthic community structure of an Irish Sea Lough: effect of decomposing accumulations of seaweed. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 96: 199-212.

Vadas, R.L., Elner, R.W., Garwood, P.E., & Babb, I.G., 1986. Experimental evaluation of aggregation behaviour in the sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis. Marine Biology, 90: 433-448.

Vasquez, J.A., & Santelices, B., 1990. Ecological effects of harvesting Lessonia (Laminariales, Phaeophyta) in central Chile. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium, 13: 41-47.

Vost, L.M., 1983. The influence of Echinus esculentus grazing on subtidal algal communities. British Phycological Journal, 18: 211.

Walker, F.T., 1947. Sublittoral seaweed survey. Part I. Development of the view box-spring grab technique for sublittoral weed survey. Part II. Survey of Orkney, Scapa Flow. Part III. Survey of Orkney, Bay of Firth. Journal of Ecology, 35: 166-175, 175-181, 181-185.

Walker, F.T., 1950. Sublittoral seaweed survey of the Orkney Islands. Journal of Ecology, 38: 139-165.

Walker, F.T., 1952a. Sublittoral seaweed survey; Dunbar to Fast Castle, East Scotland. Journal of Ecology, 40: 74-83.

Walker, F.T., 1952b. Summary of seaweed resources of Great Britain. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium, 1: 91-92.

Walker, F.T., 1954a. The Laminariaceae of North Shapinsay. Changes from 1947-53. Annals of Botany, N.S. 16: 23-25.

Walker, F.T., 1954b. Distribution of the Laminariaceae around Scotland. Journal du Conseil Internationale pour l'exploration de la Mer, 20: 160-166.

Walker, F.T., 1954c. Distribution of the Laminariaceae around Scotland. Nature, London, 173: 766.

Walker, F.T., 1956. Periodicity of the Laminariaceae around Scotland. Nature, Lond. 177: 1246.

Walker, F.T., 1957. An ecological study of the Laminariaceae of Ailsa Craig, Holy Island, Inchmarnock, May Island and Seaforth Island. Transactions Botanical Society of Edinburgh, 37: 182-199.

Walker, F.T., & Richardson, W.D., 1955. An ecological investigation of Laminaria cloustoni Edm. (L. hyperborea Fosl.) around Scotland. Journal of Ecology, 43: 26-38.

Walker, F.T. & Richardson, W.D., 1957. Survey of the Laminariaceae off the island of Arran: changes from 1953-1955. J. Ecol. 45: 225-232.

Warner, G.F., 1984. Diving and Marine Biology. The ecology of the Sublittoral. Cambridge Studies in Modern Biology, no. 3, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Wharton, W.G., & Mann, K.H., 1981. Relationships between destructive grazing by the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis and the abundance of American lobster Homarus americanus on the Atlantic coast of Nova Scotia. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science, 38: 1339-1349.

Whittick, A., 1983. Spatial and temporal distribution of dominant epiphytes on the stipes of Laminaria hyperborea (Gunn.) Fosl. (Phaeophyta: Laminariales) in SE Scotland. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 73: 1-10.

Wilkinson, 1995. Information review on the impact of kelp harvesting. Scottish Natural Heritage Review, no. 34: 54 pp.

Worsfold, T.M. & Dyer, M.F., 1997. UK Marine SACs Project. Monitoring methods workshop at Plymouth (April 1997) and Millport (May 1997). Part 1. Report. (Contractor: Unicomarine, Letchworth). JNCC, Peterborough.

Worsfold, T.M., Dyer, M.F. & Howson, C.M., 1997. Review of literature relevant to developing monitoring programmes in marine SACs. Annex 1 of Worsfold, T.M. & Dyer, M.F. (1997). UK Marine SACs Project. Monitoring methods workshop at Plymouth (April 1997) and Millport (May 1997). Part 1. Report. (Contractor: Unicomarine, Letchworth). JNCC, Peterborough.

Wulff, F.V. & Field, J.G., 1983. The importance of different trophic pathways in a near shore benthic community under upwelling and downwelling conditions. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 12: 217-228.